Discussion:
'Iraq Will never Find Peace Unless We get our Rights'
(too old to reply)
Ali Asker
2004-08-29 20:24:42 UTC
Permalink
'Iraq Will never Find Peace Unless We get our Rights'

President of Iraq Turkmen Front (ITF) Faruk Abdullah Abdurrahman
declared that unless the Turkmen are granted their own rights, Iraq
would never find calm.

Abdurrahman explained yesterday that Turkmen are opposed to a
federation based upon ethnicity in Iraq. He said that it was his dream
to establish a Turkmen state.

The ITF President, visiting Ankara for a series of meetings, spoke to
ZAMAN about the latest events in the Iraq. He stressed that the rights
given to Turkmen in the new Iraq are insufficient. "The injustices
against Turkmen carried out by the Saddam regime continue, no matter
how different things seem to be," said Abdurrahman.

Abdurrahman claims that the Iraqi Government Council sees the Turkmen
as second class citizens and has looked down on them since the
beginning. Abdurrahman stressed that Iraq will never find peace unless
Turkmen are given their rights.

Abdurrahman reiterated that ITF opposes a federative structure based
ethnicity in Iraq. He defended that such a structure would certainly
cause Iraq to disintegrate. The Turkmen leader instead defended that
an administrative federation of 18 counties would provide territorial
integrity in the country.

"Our major aim is to save the territorial integrity of Iraq."
Abdurrahman pointed out that many establishments have supported the
offers and ideas proposed months ago, even Iraqi President Iyad
Allawi. "We need help," conceded Abdurrahman.

ZAMAN

http://www.turkmenfront.org/
mark rivers
2004-08-30 05:35:35 UTC
Permalink
***@hotmail.com (Ali Asker), a thug of PKK/KADEK terrorist
organization, a full-time, professional and unconditional hater and
murderer of innocent citizens of the Democratic Republic of Turkey,
posts an anti-Turkish hate propaganda fabricated by mouth-pieces of
the same PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which, with the support of
the enemies of Turkey (Syria, Belgium, Sweden, Netherlands,
Switzerland, Denmark, France, Greece and others) and with the income
it obtained from major illegal drug trafficking to Europe, robberies,
extortions, etc. murdered nearly 40 thousands innocent human beings in
Turkey and ruined the health and property of many thousands of others
to destroy democratic goverment of the Republic of Turkey and
establish a marxist, lennist, communist PKK/KADEK dictatorship in
South East Turkey.This is against the laws of all countries in the
World including Turkey. Any country, as well as Turkey, will defend
itself against such terrorism as a most legitimate and legal right.


To hell with you all PKK/KADEK terrorists !!!!!

PKK/KADEK is not a democratically elected represantative of Kurdish
citizens of Turkey. Democratically elected represantatives of the
citizens of Turkey of Kurdish descend are in the goverment as MPs,
ministers, PMs, presidents, judjes, etc., certainly not as terrorists
murdering innocent human beings. Plus, all citizens of Turkey of
Kurdish descend, like everybody else, are serving their country as
soldiers, officers and generals in the military, police officers,
lawyers and judges in the law enforcement organizations, pursuing
their lives as business man and woman, professional careers in the
private business and goverment institutions. And, none of them feel
they have to murder innocent human beings "to defend themselves". All
citizen of Turkey, regardless of race, language, religion, gender,
etc., have their undeniable right and freedom under the law to defend
their rights and freedoms, pursue solutions for the problems they
think they have by only legal, peacefull and democratic ways and
means, definitely not "whatever means is possible" and certainly not
by terrorism.
Yiannis
2004-08-30 09:02:59 UTC
Permalink
Post by Ali Asker
'Iraq Will never Find Peace Unless We get our Rights'
More veiled threats from Angora.SO what else is new?
BTW Turkmen in Iraq should consider Turkemenistan as an option.I hear
that Turkmenbashi (the President-for-life and "father" of Turkmen) is
thinking about building a palace of ice in one of the deserts over
there.Bound to need labour, that.

Also, loved that bit on your site where it said that Turks have been
living in Iraq for 3000 years.Brought back fond memories of Atasmurf's
highly entertaining Sun-People theories. I 'll recomend it to anyone
in need of a good laugh! You really can't beat the stuff about the
Turkish origin of many words in the Assyrian language.

Good work people, keep it up.
mark rivers
2004-08-30 14:30:16 UTC
Permalink
Post by Yiannis
Post by Ali Asker
'Iraq Will never Find Peace Unless We get our Rights'
More veiled threats from Angora.SO what else is new?
"Veiled threats from Angora" ?????

First of all it is Ankara, not Angora, ignorant asshole.

Secondly, look at the real Armenian terrorist actions:


Terrorist Armenians raped, tortured, massacred millions of innocent
and defenceless Turks, Jews, Kurds, Arabs and other non-Armenians in
Ottoman Eastern Anatolia during WWI (with direct and generous support
from their allies, the victors of WWI including Czarist Russia which
also created the mess in the Middle East, including the fake state of
Iraq, millions of people are suffering from now) to ethnically cleanse
the area for an Armenian homeland which never existed.

The rest of the Ottoman Armenian population either very blindly
followed their terrorist leaders (who were ".. craven and
mean-spirited and exel in nothing except drinking ..imperfect
Christians" - Marco Polo), or remained totally complacent.

Another thug of Armenian anti-Turkish Hatred Inc indicates typical
Armenian behavior correctly:

"No sir, you will not find Armenians who will express disapproval or
distress for the assassination of Turkish governmental officials. It
is unfortunate that the attitude of the Turkish government vis-a-vis
Armenian demands dictates that more people have to die in pursuit of
justice. ... It is not uncommon to find those within the Armenian
diaspora who actually applaud these violent actions. "


David Davidian <***@urartu.SDPA.org> | The life of a people is a sea,
and
S.D.P.A. Center for Regional Studies | those that look at it from the
shore
P.O. Box 2761, Cambridge, MA 02238 | cannot know its depths.
->> Boston'dan Van'i istiyoruz <<- | -Armenian
proverb




http://www.ataa.org/ataa/ref/atrocities/chronological_rundown.html


Armenian Atrocities & Terrorism

Armenian Terrorism - A Chronological Rundown

January 27, 1973 Santa Barbara, California|

The Armenian Gourgen Yanikian, a U.S. citizen, invites the Turkish
Consul General, Mehmet Baydar, and the Consul, Bahadžr Demir to a
luncheon. The unsuspecting diplomats accept the friendly invitation.
Gourgen Yanikian murders his two guests. He is sentenced to life
imprisonment.

April 4, 1973 Paris

Bombings at the Turkish Consulate General and the offices of Turkish
Airlines (THY). Extensive damage.

October 26, 1973 New York

Attempted bombing of the Turkish Information Office. The bomb is
discovered in time and defused. A group calling itself the "Yanikian
Commandos" claims responsibility. They want the release of the double
murderer of Santa Barbara, Gourgen Yanikian, who insidiously murdered
two Turkish diplomats.

February 7, 1975 Beirut

Attempted bombing of the Turkish Information and Tourism Bureau. The
bomb explodes while being defused. A Lebanese policeman is injured.
The "Prisoner Gourgen Yanikian Group" claims responsibility.

February 20, 1975 Beirut

The "Yanikian" group demanding the release of the double murderer of
Santa Barbara strikes again. Extensive damage is caused by a bomb
explosion at the THY offices. ASALA (Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Armenia) also claims responsibility for the bombing.

October 22, 1975 Vienna

The Turkish Ambassador, Danis Tunalžgil, is assassinated in his study
by three Armenian terrorists. ASALA claims responsibility.

October 24, 1975 Paris

Ambassador Ismail Erez and his driver, Talip Yener, are murdered. The
ASALA and the JCAG (Justice Commandos for the Armenian Genocide)
dispute responsibility.

October 28, 1975 Beirut

Grenade attack on the Turkish Embassy. The ASALA claims
responsibility.

February 16, 1976 Beirut

The First Secretary of the Turkish Embassy, Oktar Cirit, is
assassinated in a restaurant on Hamra Street. The ASALA claims
responsibility.

May 17, 1976 Frankfurt, Essen, Cologne

Consulates General in Frankfurt, Essen and Cologne are the targets of
simultaneous bomb attacks.

May 28, 1976 Zurich

Bomb attacks at the offices of the Turkish Labor Attache and the
Garanti Bank. Extensive damage. A bomb in the Turkish Tourism Bureau
is defused in time. Responsibility is claimed by the JCAG.

May 2, 1977 Beirut

The cars of the Military Attache, Nahit Karakay, and the
Administrative Attache, Ilhan Özbabacan, are destroyed. The two
diplomats are uninjured. Credit is claimed by the ASALA.

May 14, 1977 Paris

Bomb attack at the Turkish Tourism Bureau. Extensive damage. The "New
Armenian Resistance Group" claims responsibility.

June 6, 1977 Zurich

Bomb attack at the store of a Turkish citizen, Hüseyin Bülbül.

June 9, 1977 Rome

Assassination of the Turkish Ambassador to the Holy See, Taha Caržm.
He dies soon after the attack. The JCAG claims responsibility.

October 4, 1977 Los Angeles

Bomb attack at the house of Professor Stanford Shaw, who teaches
Ottoman history at the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA).
Responsibility is claimed by an "Armenian Group of 28."

January 2, 1978 Brussels

Bomb attack at a building containing Turkish banking services. The
"New Armenian Resistance" claims credit.

June 2, 1978 Madrid

Terrorist attack on the automobile of the Turkish Ambassador, Zeki
Kuneralp. His wife, Necla Kuneralp, the retired Turkish Ambassador
Besir Balcžoglu die immediately in the rain of gunfire. The Spanish
chauffeur, Antonio Torres, dies of his injuries in the hospital. ASALA
and JCAG claim responsibility.

December 6, 1978 Geneva

A bomb explodes in front of the Turkish Consulate General. Extensive
damage. The "New Armenian Resistance Group" claims responsibility.

December 17, 1978 Geneva

A bomb explodes at the THY Bureau. ASALA claims responsibility.

July 8, 1979 Paris

The French capital experiences four bomb attacks in a single day. The
first is at the THY offices; the next at the offices of the Turkish
Labor Attache; the third in the Turkish Information and Tourism
Bureau. A fourth explosive, intended for the Turkish Permanent
Representative to the O.E.C.D., is defused before it explodes. The
JCAG claims responsibility.

August 22, 1979 Geneva

A bomb is thrown at the car of the Turkish Consul General, Niyazi
Adalž. The diplomat escapes unhurt. Two Swiss passers-by are injured.
Two cars are destroyed.

August 27, 1979 Frankfurt

The offices of THY are totally destroyed by an explosion. A pedestrian
is injured. The ASALA claims responsibility.

October 4, 1979 Copenhagen

Two Danes are injured when a bomb explodes near the offices of THY.
ASALA claims credit.

October 12, 1979 The Hague

Ahmet Benler, the son of Turkish Ambassador Özdemir Benler, is
assassinated by Armenian terrorists. The murderers escape. JCAG and
ASALA claim responsibility.

October 30, 1979 Milan

The offices of THY are destroyed by a bomb explosion. ASALA claims
responsibility.

November 8, 1979 Rome

The Turkish Tourism Office is destroyed by a bomb. ASALA claims
responsibility.

November 18, 1979 Paris

Bomb explosions destroy the offices of THY, KLM, and Lufthansa. Two
French policemen are injured. Responsibility is claimed by ASALA.

November 25, 1979 Madrid

Bomb explosions in front of the offices of TWA and British Airways.
ASALA, in claiming responsibility, states that the attacks are meant
as a warning to the Pope to cancel his planned visit to Turkey.

December 9, 1979 Rome

Two bombs explode in downtown Rome, damaging the offices of PAN AM,
British Airways and the Philippine Airways. Nine people are injured in
the terrorist attack. A "New Armenian Resistance Movement" claims
responsibility.

December 17, 1979 London

Extensive damage is caused when a bomb explodes in front of the THY
offices. A "Front for the Liberation of Armenia" claims
responsibility.

December 22, 1979 Paris

Yžlmaz Çolpan, the Tourism Attache at the Turkish Embassy is
assassinated while walking on the Champs Elysées. Several groups,
including ASALA, JCAG and the "Commandos of Armenian Militants Against
Genocide" claim responsibility.

December 22, 1979 Amsterdam

Heavy damage results from a bomb explosion in front of the THY
offices. ASALA claims credit.

December 23, 1979 Rome

A bomb explodes in front of a World Council of Churches Refugee
Center, being used as a transit point for Armenian refugees from
Lebanon. ASALA claims credit for the attack and warns the Italian
authorities to halt "the Armenian diaspora."

December 23, 1979 Rome

Three bomb explosions occur in front of the offices of Air France and
TWA, injuring a dozen passers-by. ASALA claims responsibility, stating
that the bomb was placed "in reprisal against the repressive measures
of French authorities against Armenians in France" (i.e., questioning
suspects, carry out investigations, etc.)

January 10, 1980 Teheran

A bomb which explodes in front of the THY offices causes extensive
damage. ASALA claims responsibility.

January 20, 1980 Madrid

A series of bomb attacks, resulting in numerous injuries, occurs in
front of the offices of TWA, British Airways, Swissair, and Sabena.
The JCAG claims credit for the attacks.

February 2, 1980 Brussels

Two bombs explode within minutes of each other in front of the
downtown offices of THY and Aeroflot. The "New Armenian Resistance
Group" issues a communique in which they claim responsibility for both
attacks.

February 6, 1980 Bern

A terrorist opens fire on Turkish Ambassador Dogan Türkmen, who
escapes with minor wounds. The would-be-assassin, an Armenian named
Max Klindjian, is subsequently arrested in Marseilles and returned to
Switzerland for trial. The JCAG claims credit for the attack.

February 18, 1980 Rome

The offices of Lufthansa, El Al and Swissair are damaged by two bomb
attacks. Telephone messages give three reasons for the attacks: 1. The
Germans support "Turkish fascism"; 2. The Jews are Zionists (ASALA);
3. The Swiss behave "repressively" towards the Armenians.

March 10, 1980 Rome

Bomb attacks on the THY and Turkish Tourism Bureau offices on the
Piazza Della Repubblica. The blasts kill two Italians and injure
fourteen. Credit for the attack is claimed by the "New Armenian
Resistance of the Armenian Secret Army."

April 17, 1980 Rome

The Turkish Ambassador to the Holy See, Vecdi Türel, is shot and
seriously wounded. His chauffeur, Tahsin Güvenç, is also slightly
wounded in the assassination attempt. JCAG claims responsibility for
the attack.

May 19, 1980 Marseilles

A rocket aimed at the Turkish Consulate General in Marseilles is
discovered and defused prior to exploding. ASALA and a group calling
itself "Black April" claim credit for the attack.

July 31, 1980 Athens

Galip Özmen, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish Embassy, and
his family are attacked by Armenian terrorists while sitting in their
car. Galip Özmen and his fourteen-year-old daughter, Neslihan, are
killed in the attack. His wife, Sevil, and his sixteen-year-old son,
Kaan, are wounded. Credit for the double killing is claimed by ASALA.

August 5, 1980 Lyon

Two terrorists storm into the Turkish Consulate General in Lyon and
open fire, killing two and injuring several other bystanders. ASALA
claims credit for the attack.

August 11, 1980 New York

An "Armenian group" hurls paint bombs at the Turkish House across from
the United Nations, home of the Turkish Representations in New York.

September 26, 1980 Paris

Selçuk Bakkalbasž, the Press Counselor at the Turkish Embassy, is shot
as he enters his home. Bakkalbasž survives but is permanently
paralyzed as a result of his injuries. ASALA claims responsibility for
the attack.

October 3, 1980 Geneva

Two Armenian terrorists are injured when a bomb they are preparing
explodes in their Geneva hotel room. The two, Suzy Mahseredjian from
Canoga Park, California, and Alexander Yenikomechian, are arrested.
Their arrest leads to the formation of a new group called "October 3,"
which subsequently strikes at Swiss targets.

October 3, 1980 Milan

Two Italians are injured when a bomb explodes in front of the THY
offices. ASALA claims credit for the attack.

October 5, 1980 Madrid

The offices of Alitalia are rocked by a bomb explosion which injures
twelve individuals. The ASALA claims responsibility for the attack.

October 6, 1980 Los Angeles

Two molotov cocktails are thrown into the home of the Turkish Consul
General, Kemal Aržkan. He survives with injuries.

October 10, 1980 Beirut

Two bombs explode near Swiss offices in West Beirut. A group calling
itself "October 3" claims responsibility for these bombings as well as
others on the same day against Swiss offices in England.

October 12, 1980 New York

A bomb placed in front of the Turkish House explodes. Four passers-by
are injured. JCAG assumes responsibility.

October 12, 1980 Los Angeles

A travel agency in Hollywood, owned by a Turkish-American, is
destroyed. JCAG claims responsibility.

October 12, 1980 London

The Turkish Tourism and Information Bureau's offices are damaged by a
bomb explosion. ASALA claims credit.

October 12, 1980 London

A Swiss shopping complex in central London is damaged by a bomb blast.
Callers claim the explosion was the work of "October 3."

October 13, 1980 Paris

A Swiss tourist office is damaged by a bomb explosion. "October 3"
again claims credit.

October 21, 1980 Interlaken, Switzerland

A bomb is found in a Swiss express train coming from Paris. Luckily,
it does not explode. "October 3" is believed to be behind the action,
which could have caused a catastrophe.

November 4, 1980 Geneva

The Swiss Palace of Justice in Geneva is heavily damaged by a bomb
explosion. Credit is claimed by "October 3."

November 9, 1980 Strasbourg

Heavy damage results from a bomb blast at the Turkish Consulate
General. The attack is claimed by ASALA.

November 10, 1980 Rome

Five people are injured in attacks on the Swissair and Swiss Tourist
offices. ASALA and "October 3" claim credit.

November 19, 1980 Rome

The offices of the Turkish Tourism Bureau and those of THY are damaged
by a bomb explosion. ASALA claims responsibility.

November 25, 1980 Geneva

The offices of the Union of Swiss Banks are hit by a bomb explosion.
Responsibility is claimed by "October 3."

December 5, 1980 Marseilles

A police expert defuses a time bomb left at the Swiss Consulate in
Marseilles. "October 3" claims responsibility.

December 15, 1980 London

Two bombs placed in front of the French Tourism Office in London are
defused by a Scotland Yard bomb squad. "October 3" claims the bombs
are a warning to the French for assistance they have rendered the
Swiss in fighting Armenian terrorism.

December 17, 1980 Sydney

Two terrorists assassinate saržk Aržyak, the Turkish Consul General,
and his bodyguard, Engin Sever. JCAG claims responsibility.

December 25, 1980 Zurich

A bomb explosion destroys a radar monitor at Kloten Airport, and a
second explosive planted on the main runway of the airport is defused.
"October 3" claims credit for these attempted mass-murders.

December 29, 1980 Madrid

A Spanish reporter is seriously injured in a telephone booth while
calling in a story to his paper about the bomb attack on the Swissair
offices. "October 3" claims responsibility.

December 30, 1980 Beirut

Bomb attack on the Credit-Suisse offices. ASALA and "October 3" fight
over who gets the credit.

January 2, 1981 Beirut

In a press communique, ASALA threatens to "attack all Swiss diplomats
throughout the world" in response to the alleged mistreatment of "Suzy
and Alex" in Switzerland. On January 4, ASALA issues a statement
giving the Swiss a few days to think things over.

January 14, 1981 Paris

A bomb explodes in the car of Ahmet Erbeyli, the Economic Counselor of
the Turkish Embassy. Erbeyli is not injured, but the explosion totally
destroys his car. A group calling itself the "Alex Yenikomechian
Commandos" of ASALA claims credit for the explosion.

January 27, 1981 Milan

The Swissair and Swiss Tourist offices in Milan are damaged by bomb
explosions. Two passers-by are injured. "October 3" claims credit for
the bombing in a call to local media representatives.

February 3, 1981 Los Angeles

Bomb-squad officials disarm a bomb left at the Swiss Consulate. The
terrorists threaten in anonymous phone calls that such attacks will
continue until Suzy Mahseredjian is released.

February 5, 1981 Paris

Bombs explode in the TWA and Air France offices. One injured, heavy
material damage. "October 3" claims credit.

March 4, 1981 Paris

Two terrorists open fire on Resat Moralž, Labor Attache at the Turkish
Embassy, Tecelli Arž, Religious Affairs Attache, and Ilkay Karakoç,
the Paris representative of the Anadolu Bank. Moralž and Arž are
assassinated. Karakoç manages to escape. ASALA claims responsibility.

March 12, 1981 Teheran

A group of ASALA terrorists try to occupy the Turkish Embassy, killing
two guards in the process. Two of the perpetrators are captured and
later executed by the Iranians. ASALA claims credit.

April 3, 1981 Copenhagen

Cavit Demir, the Labor Attache at the Turkish Embassy, is shot as he
enters his apartment building late in the evening and is seriously
wounded. Both ASALA and JCAG claim the attack.

June 3, 1981 Los Angeles

Bombs force the cancellation of performances by a Turkish folk-dance
group. Threats of similar bombings force the group's performances in
San Francisco to be canceled as well.

June 9, 1981 Geneva

Mehmet Savas Yergüz, Secretary in the Turkish Consulate, is
assassinated by the Armenian terrorist Mardiros Jamgotchian. The
arrest of the ASALA terrorist leads to the formation of a new ASALA
branch called the "Ninth of June Organization," which will be
responsible for a new series of attacks.

June 11, 1981 Paris

A group of Armenian terrorists, led by one Ara Toranian, occupies the
THY offices. Initially ignored by the French authorities, the
terrorists are only evicted from the premises after vehement protests
from the Turkish Embassy.

June 19, 1981 Teheran

A bomb explodes at the offices of Swissair. The "Ninth of June
Organization" claims responsibility.

June 26, 1981 Los Angeles

A bomb explodes in front of the Swiss Banking Corporation offices.
Again the work of the "Ninth of June Organization."

July 19, 1981 Bern

A bomb explodes at the Swiss Parliament Building. "Ninth of June"
claims responsibility.

July 20, 1981 Zurich

"Ninth of June" strikes again. A bomb explodes in an automatic
photo-booth at Zurich's international airport.

July 21, 1981 Lausanne

Twenty women are injured as a bomb laid by Armenian terrorists
explodes in a department store. "Ninth of June" claims responsibility.

July 22, 1981 Geneva

A bomb explodes in a locker at the train station. Authorities suspect
"Ninth of June."

July 22, 1981 Geneva

An hour later, a second bomb explodes in a locker at the station.
Police cordoned off the area following the first explosion, thereby
preventing injuries from the second.

August 11, 1981 Copenhagen

Two bombs destroy the offices of Swissair. An American tourist is
injured in the explosion. "Ninth of June" claims responsibility.

August 20, 1981 Los Angeles

A bomb explodes outside the offices of Swiss Precision Instruments.
The attack is claimed by "Ninth of June."

August 20, 1981 Paris

Explosion at Alitalia Airlines. "October 3" is back in action.

September 15, 1981 Copenhagen

Two people are injured as a bomb explodes in front of the THY offices.
Police experts manage to defuse a second bomb. Credit is claimed by a
"Sixth Armenian Liberation Army."

September 17, 1981 Teheran

A bomb explosion damages a Swiss Embassy building. ASALA's "Ninth of
June" claims responsibility.

September 24, 1981 Paris

Four Armenian terrorists occupy the Turkish Consulate General. During
their entry into the building, the Consul, Kaya Inal, and a security
guard, Cemal Özen, are seriously wounded. Terrorists take 56 hostages.
Özen dies of his injuries in the hospital. The terrorists are ASALA
members.

October 3, 1981 Geneva

The main post office and the city courthouse are hit by bomb
explosions. An ASALA member is scheduled to go on trial for murder in
the courthouse. "Ninth of June" claims credit for the attacks, which
leave one person injured.

October 25, 1981 Rome

An Armenian terrorist fires at Gökberk Ergenekon, Second Secretary at
the Turkish Embassy. Ergenekon is wounded in the arm. ASALA claims
credit in the name of the "September 24 Suicide Commandos."

October 25, 1981 Paris

Fouquet's, the fashionable French restaurant, is the target of a bomb
attack. A group calling itself "September-France" claims the attack.

October 26, 1981 Paris

The same group is behind the explosion of a booby-trapped automobile
in front of "Le Drugstore."

October 27, 1981 Paris

"September-France" carries out a bomb attack at Roissy Airport.

October 27, 1981 Paris

A second bomb explodes near a busy escalator at Roissy Airport. No one
is injured. "September-France" claims responsibility.

October 28, 1981 Paris

The same group is responsible for a bomb attack in a movie theater.
Three people are injured.

November 3, 1981 Madrid

A bomb explodes in front of the Swissair offices, injuring three
persons. Considerable damage to nearby buildings. ASALA claims
responsibility.

November 5, 1981 Paris

A bomb explodes in the Gare de Lyon, injuring one person. The attack
is claimed by the Armenian "Orly Organization."

November 12, 1981 Beirut

Simultaneous bomb explosions occur in front of three French offices:
the French Cultural Center, the Air France offices and the home of the
French Consul General. The "Orly Organization" claims responsibility.
This organization owes its name to the fact that the French police
arrested an Armenian at Orly Airport in Paris because of forged
papers. The idea now is to "bomb him free."

November 14, 1981 Paris

A bomb explosion damages an automobile near the Eiffel Tower. "Orly"
claims responsibility.

November 14, 1981 Paris

"Orly" launches a grenade attack on a group of tourists disembarking
from a sightseeing boat on the River Seine.

November 15, 1981 Paris

"Orly" threatens to blow up an Air France airplane in flight.

November 15, 1981 Beirut

Simultaneous bomb attacks are carried out against three French
targets: the "Union des Assurances de Paris", the Air France offices
and the "Banque Libano-Française". "Orly" is responsible.

November 15, 1981 Paris

A McDonald's restaurant is destroyed by "September-France."

November 16, 1981 Paris

A bomb injures two innocent bystanders at the Gare de l'Est. "Orly"
claims responsibility.

November 18, 1981 Paris

"Orly" announces that it has planted a bomb at the Gare du Nord.

November 20, 1981 Los Angeles

The Turkish Consulate General in Beverly Hills suffers extensive
damage. The JCAG claims credit.

January 13, 1982 Toronto

An ASALA bomb causes extensive damage to the Turkish Consulate
General.

January 17, 1982 Geneva

Two bombs destroy parked cars. The ASALA "Ninth of June Organization"
claims credit.

January 17, 1982 Paris

A bomb explodes at the Union of Banks and a second is disarmed at the
Credit Lyonnais. "Orly" claims responsibility.

January 19, 1982 Paris

A bomb explodes in the Air France offices in the Palais des Congres.
"Orly" claims responsibility.

January 28, 1982 Los Angeles

Kemal Aržkan, the Turkish Consul General in Los Angeles, is
assassinated by two terrorists while driving to work. Nineteen year
old Hampig Sassounian is arrested and sentenced to life.

March 22, 1982 Cambridge, Massachusetts

A gift shop belonging to Orhan Gündüz, the Turkish Honorary Consul
General in Boston, is blown up. Gündüz receives an ultimatum: Either
he gives up his honorary position or he will be "executed."
Responsibility is claimed by the JCAG.

March 26, 1982 Beirut

Two dead, sixteen injured in an explosion at a movie theater. ASALA
claims credit for the attack.

April 8, 1982 Ottawa

Kani Güngör, the Commercial Attache at the Turkish Embassy in Ottawa,
is seriously wounded in an attack by Armenian terrorists in the garage
of his apartment house. ASALA claims responsibility.

April 24, 1982 Dortmund, West Germany

Several Turkish-owned businesses suffer extensive damage in bomb
attacks. The "New Armenian Resistance Organization" claims
responsibility.

May 4, 1982 Cambridge, Massachusetts

Orhan Gündüz, the Turkish Honorary Consul General in Boston is
assassinated. The murderer is still at large.

May 10, 1982 Geneva

Bombs explode at two banks. The attacks are claimed by an Armenian
"World Punishment Organization."

May 18, 1982 Toronto

Four Armenians are arrested for trying to smuggle money out of the
country. The money was extorted from Armenians, a common practice
throughout the world. In the course of the investigation, it is
discovered that the terrorists fire-bombed the house of an Armenian
who refused to make his contribution to Armenian terrorism.

May 18, 1982 Tampa, Florida

Attack at the office of Nash Karahan, the Turkish Honorary Consul
General.

May 26, 1982 Los Angeles

A bomb damages the office of Swiss Banking Corporation. The suspects:
four Armenians accused of involvement in ASALA.

May 30, 1982 Los Angeles

Three members of ASALA are arrested when planting a bomb in the Air
Canada cargo-office.

June 7, 1982 Lisbon

The Administrative Attache at the Turkish Embassy, Erkut Akbay, and
his wife, Nadide Akbay, are assassinated in front of their home. JCAG
claims responsibility.

July 1, 1982 Rotterdam

Kemalettin Demirer, the Turkish Consul General in Rotterdam, is shot
down by four Armenian terrorists. An "Armenian Red Army" claims
responsibility.

July 21, 1982 Paris

Sixteen injured in a bomb explosion near a cafe in the Place
Saint-Severin. Credit is claimed by the Orly Organization. "Orly"
complains that the French do not treat the arrested Armenian
terrorists as "political prisoners," but rather as ordinary criminals.

July 26, 1982 Paris

"Orly" is responsible for injuring two women in an explosion in Paris'
"Pub Saint-Germain."

August 2, 1982 Paris

Pierre Gulumian, an Armenian terrorist, is killed when a bomb he is
making explodes in his face.

August 7, 1982 Ankara, Esenboga Airport

Two Armenian terrorists open fire in a crowded passenger waiting room.
One of the terrorists takes more than twenty hostages while the second
is apprehended by the police. Nine people are dead and eighty-two
injured&emdash;some seriously. The surviving terrorist, Levon
Ekmekjian is arrested and sentenced.

August 8, 1982 Paris

A bomb is defused in time. "Orly" regrets the discovery.

August 12, 1982 Paris

Terrorists open fire on a policeman assigned to protect the offices of
the Turkish Tourism Attache. Luckily, he escapes without injury.

August 27, 1982 Ottawa

Colonel Atilla Altžkat, the Military Attache at the Turkish Embassy,
is assassinated in his car. JCAG claims responsibility.

September 9, 1982 Burgaz, Bulgaria

Bora Süelkan, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish Consulate
General in Burgaz, is assassinated in front of his home. The assassin
leaves a message "We shot dead the Turkish diplomat: Combat Units of
Justice Against the Armenian Genocide." An anonymous caller claims
that the assassination is the work of a branch of the ASALA.

October 26, 1982 Los Angeles

Five Armenian terrorists are charged with conspiring to blow up the
offices of the Honorary Turkish Consul General in Philadelphia. All
belong to the JCAG.

December 8, 1982 Athens

Two Armenians on a motorbike throw a bomb at the offices of the Saudi
Arabian Airlines. The bomb hits a power pylon, explodes and kills one
of the terrorists. His accomplice, an Armenian from Iran named Vahe
Kontaverdian is arrested. It is later revealed that ASALA ordered the
attack because Saudi Arabia maintains friendly relations with Turkey.

January 21, 1983 Anaheim, California

Nine "sophisticated" pipe bombs are confiscated from an Armenian
bakery after one of the detonators goes off and causes fire.

January 22, 1983 Paris

Two terrorists attack the offices of THY with hand grenades. No one is
injured. ASALA claims credit.

January 22, 1983 Paris

French police defuse a powerful explosive device near the THY counter
at Orly airport.

February 2, 1983 Brussels

The offices of THY are bombed. The "New Armenian Resistance
Organization" claims responsibility.

February 28, 1983 Luxembourg

A bomb placed in front of Turkey's diplomatic mission is defused. The
Armenian Reporter in New York reports that the "New Armenian
Resistance Organization" is responsible.

February 28, 1983 Paris

A bomb explodes at the Marmara Travel Agency. Killed in the explosion
is Renée Morin, a French secretary. Four other Frenchmen are wounded.
A few minutes after the attack, ASALA claims responsibility.

March 9, 1983 Belgrade

Galip Balkar, the Turkish Ambassador to Yugoslavia is assassinated in
central Belgrade. His chauffeur, Necati Kayar is shot in the stomach.
As the two assailants flee from the scene, they are bravely pursued by
Yugoslav citizens. One of the terrorists shoots and wounds a Yugoslav
Colonel, and is in turn apprehended by a policeman. The second
terrorist opens fire on civilians who are chasing him, killing a young
student and wounding a young girl. The two terrorists, Kirkor Levonian
and Raffi Elbekian, are tried and sentenced.

March 31, 1983 Frankfurt

An anonymous caller threatened to bomb the offices and kill the staff
of Tercüman newspaper, a Turkish daily.

May 24, 1983 Brussels

Bombs explode in front of the Turkish Embassy's Culture and
Information offices and in front of a Turkish-owned travel agency. The
Italian director of the travel agency is wounded. ASALA claims credit.

June 16, 1983 Istanbul

Armenian terrorists carry out an attack with hand grenades and
automatic weapons inside the covered bazaar in Istanbul. Two dead,
twenty-one wounded. ASALA claims responsibility.

July 8, 1983 Paris

Armenian terrorists attack the offices of the British Council,
protesting against the trials of Armenians in London.

July 14, 1983 Brussels

Armenian terrorists murder Dursun Aksoy, the Administrative Attache at
the Turkish Embassy. ASALA, ARA and JCAG claim responsibility.

July 15, 1983 Paris

A bomb explodes in front of the THY counter at Orly airport. Eight
dead, more than sixty injured. A 29 years old Syrian-Armenian named
Varadjian Garbidjian confesses to having planted the bomb. He admits
that the bomb was intended to have exploded once the plane was
airborne.

July 15, 1983 London

A bomb, similar to the one that exploded at Orly, is defused in time.
ASALA claims responsibility for both attacks.

July 18, 1983 Lyon

A bomb threat is made by ASALA against the Lyon railroad station.

July 20, 1983 Lyon

Panicky evacuation of Lyon's Gare de Perrache following a bomb threat
from ASALA.

July 22, 1983 Teheran

"Orly" carries out bomb attacks on the French Embassy and Air France.

July 27, 1983 Lisbon

Five Armenian terrorists attempt to storm the Turkish Embassy in
Lisbon. Failing to gain access to the chancery, they occupy the
residence, taking the Deputy Chief of Mission(DCM) and his family
hostage. When explosives being planted by the terrorists go off,
Cahide Mžhçžoglu, wife of the DCM and four of the terrorists are blown
to pieces. The DCM, Yurtsev Mžhçžoglu, and his son Atasay are injured.
The fifth terrorist is killed in the initial assault by Turkish
security forces. One Portuguese policeman is also killed and another
wounded. The ARA claims responsibility.

July 28, 1983 Lyon

Another bomb threat on Lyon-Perrache railroad station. ASALA claims
responsibility.

July 29, 1983 Teheran

A threat to blow up the French Embassy in Teheran with a rocket attack
causes Iranian officials to increase security at the facility.

July 31, 1983 Lyon and Rennes

Bomb threats from Armenian terrorists force the emergency landing of
two domestic French flights carrying 424 passengers.

August 10, 1983 Teheran

A bomb explodes in an automobile at the French Embassy. ASALA claims
credit for the attack.

August 25, 1983 Bonn

A whole series of bomb attacks against offices of the French Consulate
General claim two lives and leave twenty-three injured. ASALA claims
responsibility.

September 9, 1983 Teheran

Two French Embassy cars are bombed. One of the bombs injures two
embassy staff members. ASALA claims credit.

October 1, 1983 Marseilles

A bomb blast destroys the U.S., Soviet and Algerian pavilions at an
international trade fair in Marseilles. One person is killed and
twenty-six injured. ASALA and "Orly" claim credit.

October 6, 1983 Teheran

A French Embassy vehicle is bombed, injuring two passengers. "Orly"
claims responsibility.

October 29, 1983 Beirut

Hand-grenade attack on the French Embassy. One of the ASALA terrorists
is arrested.

October 29, 1983 Beirut

The Turkish Embassy is attacked by three Armenian terrorists. One of
the assailants, Sarkis Denielian, a 19 years old Lebanese-Armenian is
apprehended. ASALA claims responsibility.

February 8, 1984 Paris

Bomb threat on an Air France flight to New York.

March 28, 1984 Teheran

A timed series of attacks is carried out against Turkish diplomats:

Two Armenian terrorists shoot and seriously wound Sergeant Ismail
Pamukçu, employed at the office of the Turkish Military Attache;

Hasan Servet Öktem, First Secretary of the Turkish Embassy, is
slightly wounded as he leaves his home;

Ibrahim Özdemir, the Administrative Attache at the Turkish Embassy,
alerts police to two suspicious looking men. They turn out to be
Armenian terrorists and are arrested;

In the afternoon of the same day, Iranian police arrest three more
Armenian terrorists outside the Turkish Embassy;

An Armenian terrorist is killed when a bomb he is attempting to plant
in the car of the Turkish Assistant Commercial Counselor explodes
prematurely. The dead terrorist is later identified as Sultan
Gregorian Semaperdan (ASALA).

March 29, 1984 Los Angeles

ASALA sends a written threat, saying they will assassinate Turkish
athletes who take part in the Olympics.

April 8, 1984 Beirut

ASALA issues a communique warning that all flights to Turkey will be
considered military targets.

April 26, 1984 Ankara

The Turkish Prime Minister, Turgut Özal, receives a threat warning him
that if he goes ahead with a planned visit to Teheran, ASALA will
schedule a major terrorist operation against his country.

April 28, 1984 Teheran

Two Armenian terrorists riding a motorcycle open fire on Isžk Yönder
as he drives his wife, Sadiye Yönder, to the Turkish Embassy where she
works. Isžk Yönder is killed, and ASALA claims credit for yet another
senseless murder.

June 20, 1984 Vienna

A bomb explodes in a car belonging to Erdogan Özen, Assistant Labor
and Social Affairs Counselor at the Turkish Embassy in Vienna. Özen is
killed and five others seriously wounded, including a policeman. ARA
terrorists claim credit for the crime.

June 25, 1984 Los Angeles

A news agency office in France receives a letter threatening to attack
all governments, organizations and companies which assist, in any way
whatsoever, Turkey's team at the Los Angeles Olympics.

August 13, 1984 Lyon

A bomb explodes in a Lyon train station causing minor damage. ASALA
claims credit.

September 1984 Teheran

Several Turkish owned firms in Iran come under attack after receiving
warning letters informing them that they are to be targeted. The first
victim is the Sezai Türkes Company. A Turkish employee is injured
while fighting the fire caused by the explosion. A chain of smaller
scale acts of intimidation follows.

September 1, 1984 Teheran

Iranian authorities expose a plot to assassinate Ismet Birsel, the
Turkish Ambassador to Teheran.

September 3, 1984 Istanbul

Two Armenian terrorists die as one of their bombs goes off too soon.
The ARA claims credit.

November 19, 1984 Vienna

Evner Ergun, Deputy Director of the Centre for Social Development and
Humanitarian Affairs of the United Nations, Vienna is assassinated
while driving to work. The assassins leave a flag with the initials
"ARA" on his body.

December 1984 Brussels

Authorities are able to thwart a bombing attempt at the residence of
Selçuk Incesu, Turkish Consul General.

December 29, 1984 Beirut

Two French buildings in East Beirut are bombed. ASALA claims credit.

December 29, 1984 Paris

Following an ASALA threat to blow up an Air France plane, police
increase security at the Charles de Gaulle Airport.

January 3, 1985 Beirut

The offices of Agence France Presse are extensively damaged when a
bomb explodes.

March 3, 1985 Paris

An anonymous caller to Agence France Presse threatens to attack French
interests throughout the world upon the indictment of the three
terrorists who participated in the Orly attack.

March 12, 1985 Ottawa

Three heavily armed terrorists storm the Turkish Embassy, killing a
Canadian security guard in the process. After blowing up the front
door, the gunmen enter the building. Ambassador Coskun Kžrca manages
to escape but suffers extensive injuries. The wife and daughter of the
Ambassador, who were taken hostage, are later released, and the
terrorists surrender. ARA claims responsibility.

March 26, 1985 Toronto

A threat to blow up the city of Toronto's transit system leads to
chaos during the rush hour. An "Armenian Secret Army for the
Liberation of Our Homeland" claims responsibility for the threat.

November 1985 Brussels

A special anti-terrorist security squad of the Belgian police exposes
and arrests three Armenian terrorists with Portuguese passports. They
were planning an attack on Turkish officers at NATO headquarters.

November 28, 1985 Paris

French police arrest the leader of the terrorist
organization&emdash;the "Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of
Armenia-Revolutionary Movement" (ASALA-RM)&emdash;Mr. Monte Melkonian,
a U.S. citizen. In Melkonian's apartment, police confiscate weapons,
explosive devices, arrival and departure information on Turkish ships
scheduled to visit France and a picture of Turkey's Ambassador to
France, Adnan Bulak.

December 1985 Paris

Forty-one shoppers in two of Paris' leading department stores
(Gallerie Lafayette and Printemps) are injured (twelve seriously) when
nearly simultaneous bomb explosions rip through the stores. In the
ensuing panic, some 10,000 Christmas shoppers flee into the street.
The Armenian Reporter, published in New York, reports in its December
12th issue that French law enforcement authorities are concentrating
on ASALA as the most likely perpetrator. ASALA later takes credit for
the two bombings.

November 23, 1986 Melbourne

At 2:15 a.m. a bomb explodes in front of the Turkish Consulate
General. One dead -presumedly the perpetrator- and one Australian
injured.
mark rivers
2004-08-30 14:31:24 UTC
Permalink
Post by Yiannis
Post by Ali Asker
'Iraq Will never Find Peace Unless We get our Rights'
More veiled threats from Angora.SO what else is new?
"Veiled threats from Angora" ?????

First of all it is Ankara, not Angora, ignorant asshole.

Secondly, look at the real Armenian terrorist actions:



http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh1.htm


History of the Nagorno-Karabakh Region of the Republic of Azerbaijan

The history of Karabakh is rooted in antiquity, and it is one of the
historic provinces of Azerbaijan, an important political, cultural,
and spiritual center.

Territorial claims of the Armenians against the Azerbaijani people and
Azerbaijan are the main reasons for the so-called "Karabakh problem".

Karabakh (Arsakh) was inalienable part to all the state formations
that have existed on the territory of northern Azerbaijan.

From 4th century B.C. to 8th century A.D. the territory of the current
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan was one of the provinces of
Caucasian Albania, the most ancient state of Northern Azerbaijan.
After the fall of the independent Albanian state, Arsakh being
inseparable from Azerbaijan both geographically and politically, was a
part to the Azerbaijani state of Sajids, in 10th century - to the
state of Salarids, and in 11-12th centuries - to the state of
Sheddadids. During 12-13th centuries Karabakh constituted part of the
Atabey-Ildenizids state, in the second half of 13th century -
beginning of 15th century, during the existence of the Mongolian
Khulagouid state - part of the Jalairids' state. In the 15th century
it existed within the states of Gharagouynlou and Aghgouynlou, and
during 16th and 17th centuries Karabakh, as a part of the Karabakh
beylerbeyyat (duchy), was within the Sefevi state. The latter
consisted of 4 beylerbeyyats: Shirvani, Karabakhi (also known as
Ganja), Chukhursaadi (or Erivan) and Azerbaijani (or Tebriz).
Karabakh, being a part of the Karabakhi beylerbeyyat, was ruled by the
representatives of the Turkic Zyiad-oglu tribe, subordinated to Kajars
from 16th till 19th century. In the second half of the 18th century
Karabakh belonged to the Karabakh khanate (principality) and along
with the latter was incorporated into Russia.

Thus, Karabakh has never been a part of the Armenian state, which was
established in Asia, far from South Caucasus.

In the antiquity the population of Karabakh consisted of Albans, and
in the early medieval period - of Albans and Turkic-speaking tribes of
Barsil, Savir, Hunn, Khazar, which lived on this territory. These
tribes were joined by other Turkic-speaking tribes, in particular,
Roumlou, Shoumlou, Bakharlou, Kangary and etc. Language of the Albans
belonged to northeastern-Caucasian family. As it has been established
as a result of most recent research, tribes of that family have
inhabited the territory, at least, since the mesolithic period, no
less than ten thousand years ago.

Arabic conquest of the lowlands of Albania, as well as valleys of Kura
and Araz in 7th century, resulted in islamization of the population of
the plains and it merging with the Turkic-speaking population of the
country. However, Albanian population, ruled by Albanian Mikhranid
princes, remained in the mountainous Arsakh along with the Turkic
tribes. Descendants of the Mikhranid clan restored the Albanian
kingdom in Arsakh in the 9th century. This kingdom was ruled by the
Jalalids, descendants of Hassan-Jalal, until 15th century.


General appearance of Gandzasar cloister, center of Alban church

After losing political and secular power in the 15th century,
representatives of the clan of Jalal became the spiritual leaders of
the country. They became Patriarch-Catolicos of the Albanian
autonomous church, until 1836, when independence of the Albanian
church was abolished and subordinated to the Armenian church as a
result of intrigues of the Armenian clergy.

In the 15th century the Jalalids were granted the title of Melik
(count) by Jahanshah. After that the clan broke up and five melikates
(smaller autonomous county) appeared in Karabakh: Goulistan, Jraberd,
Khachen, Varanda and Dizak. The title of Melik was conferred upon the
ruling families of the Melikates. Meliks of Karabakh in their letters
to the Russian czar call themselves "descendants of the Albanian
Arshakids". The Albanian princes had a title of melik, differing from
Armenian titles: ishkhan, tar etc. None of the Albanian Melik families
was of Armenian descent.

Thus, the historical Albanian province of Arsakh until 19th century
had been an important political, cultural, spiritual center of the
remaining Albanian Christian population which managed to preserve its
territorial, political, confessional unity and, importantly, - its
Albanian self-conscience.

Appearance of the first ethnic Armenian on the territory of
Azerbaijan, in particular, in Karabakh, should be viewed through the
prism of the Armenian people's history.

As it is known, Armenians are not aboriginal neither in the territory
of Asia Minor (historical Turkey), nor in the Caucasus. According to
Armenologists, the Armenians, who belonged to the Frigian tribes,
originally inhabiting the Balkans, following the Cimmerian
resettlement appeared in Asia Minor in the 7th century B.C. They have
further spread to the east, reaching Euphrates. The latest edition of
"The history of the Armenian people" states that in the 12th century
B.C. groups of Hindo-European Armenian-speaking tribes penetrated
territories of the Khurrites and Louvian Khetts in the upper reaches
of the Euphrates. These tribes were called as "moushku" and "urumu" by
Assirian cuneiform texts, "arims" by the Greek sources, and later
"Armenians".

The first Armenian state, established in Asia Minor in the 6th century
B.C., lasted until 428 and was only nominally a state being de-facto a
province of the Persian and Roman Empires. Attempts to restore the
Armenian kingdom were made in 9th-11th centuries and in 12th-14th
centuries. Thus, in 9th-11th centuries Armenian Bagratid state, with
the capital of Ani, was established in the vicinity of Kars and
Erzurum. Later, in 12th-14th centuries, an Armenian Kilikian kingdom
was founded in a totally different location on the northeastern shore
of the Mediterranean.

Since the 15th century the Armenian history is closely linked to the
Armenian church. Significance and influence of the church have
especially grown after the Catolicos' seat was moved in 1441 from
Kilikia to Echmiadzin, in the vicinity of Yerevan. Since that time
Echmiadzin assumed both political and general leadership in the life
of the Armenians. It became the consolidating and organizing force of
the Armenian people scattered across many countries.

Thus, Azerbaijani regions of Arsakh and Sounik, partly populated by
Christian Albans, had preserved confessional unity with Armenians
while maintaining territorial and political unity with Azerbaijan.

With the emergence of the Ottoman Empire Armenians lost hope to create
their state in Asia Minor. This is when the Armenians turned to the
Caucasus and historical Azerbaijan with the idea of forcing
Azerbaijanis out of the Caucasus. Authors of "The history of the
Armenian people" introduce into scientific circles the term "Eastern
Armenia", by which they from 16th to 20th century mean exclusively
Azerbaijani lands: Karabakh, Erevan, Ganja, Sounik-Zangezur. Thus,
"Eastern Armenia" shifts both in time and space from east of the
Euphrates to the Caucasus.

Beginning from the 18th century the Armenians penetrating Russia were
trying to gain favor of the Russian court, first - of the Emperor Paul
I, then - Empress Catherine II by all means. Attracting them by the
necessity of liberating the so-called "Eastern Armenia" from Turkish
and Persian "yoke", Armenians practically aimed at cleansing Karabakh
and the lands of Zangezur from Azerbaijanis, who co-existed with the
fragments of Albanian Christians. Another goal was the Russian
conquest of these territories. Undoubtedly, Armenian intended, by
separating these lands from Azerbaijan and joining them with Russia,
to continue presenting them as "Eastern Armenia", this time within
Russia. In 1805 by peace negotiations Azerbaijani khanates of Karabakh
(founded by Azerbaijani Panakh Ali-khan, fortress of Shusha which he
erected to make the capital of the khanate, was called Panakhabad),
Sheki and Shirvan were forced to accept the Russian rule. During the
period of 1806-1813 through embittered wars and campaigns by
Tsitsianov, Goudovich and general Kotlyarovsky the rest of the
Azerbaijani khanates - principalities of Talysh, Baki, Gouba, Ganja,
Derbent were conquered. Later, in 1826, Russia annexed the khanates of
Nakhchivan and Yerevan, populated mostly by Turkic Azerbaijanis.

According to official documents, Kharabakh khanate had 90,000
residents, one town and more than 600 villages, only 150 of them were
Armenian. There were 1048 Azerbaijani and 474 Armenian resident
families in Shusha. In villages: 12,902 and 4,331 accordingly.
However, already by the end of the 19th century Nagorny Karabakh had
Armenian majority of 58%, while Azerbaijanis constituted 42% of
population. Influx of Armenian population in Azerbaijan, especially
into Karabakh, was significant during and after World War 1.

Increase of Armenian population in the Caucasus and concentration of
predominantly pro-Russian Christian Armenians in the areas bordering
Turkey and Persia was dictated by interests of Russia. In addition,
this way Russia won sympathies of Armenians in Turkey and secured
support in Asia Minor.


Memorial "Maraga - 150" mounted in 1978 on the occasion of 150
anniversary of arrival of Armenians from Persian region Maraga to
Karabakh. In 1988 as the Armenians in Nagorny Karabakh began
"realisation of right of the nation for self-determination"
inscription on the memorial "Maraga - 150" immediately disappeared

Both Turkmanchay and Adrianopol treaties included special clauses
allowing for migration of Armenians into the Caucasus, into the lands
of Azerbaijan and Georgia. This is when first compact Armenian
settlements appeared in Zangezur and Karabakh. In the years 1828-1830
alone 130,000 Armenians migrated. Following signing of Turkmanchay
treaty in 1828 Tsarist government created new, previously non-existent
political entity – the Armenian oblast (district). This district
consisted of Azerbaijani lands of Erivan, Nakhchivan and Ordubad
districts and was governed by Czarist bureaucrats. This was the first
attempt to create an Armenian political entity on the territory of
Azerbaijan. In 1849 the Armenian district was abolished and Erivan
governorship created instead.

In 1836, in order to secure support of Armenians in Turkey and trying
to subordinate them to pro-Russian oriented Armenian Patriarchy in
Echmiadzin, Tzarist government made a number of concessions to the
Armenian Echmiadzin Church. These concessions included abolition the
Albanian Patriarchy, the independent Albanian church, and
subordination of it to the Armenian Gregorian church. Later, in
1909-1910, the Armenian Gregorian church with permission of the
Russian Sinod destroyed archives of the Albanian church and eliminated
samples of the Albanian literature. Russian historian V.L.Velichko
wrote that the Armenian clergy had used similar approach to Albanian
Christian shrines, the same way the Georgian monuments were treated.
After abolition of the Albanian Church Albans of Karabakh became
Gregorianized and some of the Albans of Karabakh migrated to the left
bank of the Kura river, preserved their identity and still live in the
Azerbaijani village of Nij.

The issue of so-called "Western Armenia" is related to the situation
of Turkey's Armenian population and following 1878 talks held in
Berlin and San-Stefano became "the Armenian question", which implied
Turkey undertaking introduce reforms in the Armenian-populated
vilayets (regions). In reality, only Tzarist Russia was pushing for
realization "the Armenian question". Two political parties, "GNCHAK"
(1887) and "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" (1890) were created for that purpose.
These parties developed ideological justification for Armenian
territorial claims in the Caucasus. "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" used terrorism
and armed rebellion to achieve its goal of unifying territories with
Armenian migrant population from Iran and Turkey. "DASHNAKTSUTYUN"
party frequently changed its orientation from pro-Russian to
pro-European and then from supporting Turkish revolutionary movement
back to supporting Russia.

During the Balkan war of 1912-1914 Russia proposed creation of an
autonomous Armenian district in Turkey, so-called "Western Armenia"
from vilayets of Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbakir, Harput, Sivas. This
proposal was not supported by the European states. The Armenian
political parties mentioned above and authorities of the Russian
Empire in an attempt to contain national-liberation movement in the
Caucasus provoked first clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. As
a result, between 1907 and 1912 about 500,000 Armenians from Iran and
Turkey migrated into Kars, Erivan and Yelizavetpol districts, most of
population of which were Azerbaijanis. This took place with assistance
of Russian authorities in order to make inter-ethnic situation even
more tense and strengthen Russia's dominance in the region.

February and October Revolutions of 1917 marked a new stage in "the
Armenian question". In October 1917 Armenian Congress convened in
Tiflis and demanded Russian annexation of East Turkey's territory
occupied by the Russian Army during WW1. On December, 31 the Council
of Commissars adopted a decree signed by Lenin and Stalin on free
self-determination of "Turkish Armenia".

Following collapse of the Transcaucasus Parliament the Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic (ADR), the first democratic state in the Muslim
world, was established on May, 28 1918. One of the first steps of the
ADR's government was to yield on May, 29 1918 town of Erivan (Yerevan)
to Republic of Armenia, which had declared independence but had no
political center. Territory of Armenian Republic was limited to Erivan
and Echmiadzin districts with 400,000 residents. Later, all means were
employed to implement policies aimed at changing demography of Erivan
and Zangezur in favor of Armenians.

Azerbaijan's foreign policy objectives at that period included
developing friendly and neighborly relationship with Armenia.
Unfortunately, "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" government of Armenia had expansionist
plans and laid claims on Nakhichevan, Zangezur and Karabakh, all of
which were parts of Azerbaijan. This led to the war between Armenia
and Azerbaijan in 1918-1920. According to available data, during
summer of 1918 alone 115 Azerbaijani villages were destroyed, 7,000
people killed and 50,000 Azerbaijanis left Zangezur.

US President Wilson accepted instructions from the League of Nations,
which stated that Armenia "cannot exist without support" and that its
borders must be defined. However, the Senate decided that "the
Armenian question" is a European issue and rejected the "mandate on
Armenia".

The French Government acted similarly towards Armenians regarding
Kilikia, which had been occupied by France in 1919. In 1921 France
concluded peace treaty with Turkey, and gave up Kilikia.

Thus, the Armenian issue concentrated in the South Caucasus. In March
- July 1920 clashes with Dashnak forces took place in Karabakh,
especially in Shusha, Nakhchivan, Ordoubad. Hostilities took place in
Khankendy, Terter, Askeran, Zangezur, Jebrail, Nakhchivan, Ganja, and
dozens of Azerbaijani villages were destroyed.

Independence of Azerbaijan was crushed after the Bolshevik 11th Red
Army had invaded the country and the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Azerbaijan was proclaimed on April 28, 1920. Soviet Russia decided not
to allow turning Armenian Republic into anti-Russian bridgehead. It
became a mediator in settling the border disputes between Armenia and
Azerbaijan. In July 1920 Dashnak government in Erivan gave a secret
order to the Dashnak military forces to begin guerilla punitive
activities in Karabakh, Nakhchivan, and Zangezur. The same summer the
Bolsheviks have crushed the Dashnak troops that had invaded Karabakh,
and established Soviet rule here. Later, in November 1920, the Dashnak
regime was overthrown in Armenia.

The letter written in 1920 by chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
of Azerbaijan N.Narimanov, member of the Caucasus regional committee
of the Communist Party B.Mdivani, member the Central Committee of the
Communist Party (CCCP) of Azerbaijan A.Mikoyan and member of the CCCP
of Armenia A.Nourijanian, the people's commissary (minister) of
foreign affairs G.Chicherin and G.Orjonikidze stated: "As far as
supposedly disputed territories of Zangezur and Karabakh, that have
already joined Soviet Azerbaijan, are concerned, we categorically
state, that there can be no dispute about these places and they must
stay within Azerbaijan. The regions of Djulfa and Nakhchivan are
populated solely by Moslems... and must join with Azerbaijan".

G.Orjonikidze, who in his telegrams to V.Lenin, I.Stalin, G.Chicherin
has been underlining economic bent of Karabakh and Zangezur for Baku
and Azerbaijan, was of the same opinion. I.A.Mikoyan said that "agents
of the Armenian government, the Dashnaks, are striving for joining
Karabakh with Armenia, but for the population of Karabakh it would
mean to be deprived of their life-line, which is Baku, and to be
connected to Erivan, with which it hasn't ever been linked in any way.
"

Responding to the territorial claims of the Armenian SSR the Caucasus
bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party at its
meeting dated July 5, 1921 decided: "Proceeding from the necessity to
maintain ethnic peace between Moslems and Armenians, economic ties
between Highland and Lowland Karabakh, its uninterrupted ties with
Azerbaijan, Nagorny Karabakh is to be left within (underlined by the
edit.) the Azerbaijan SSR and to be granted broad regional autonomy
with the administrative center in Shusha, which is a part of the
autonomous region." Establishment of the autonomous region was not
artificial, though it contradicted historic right of Azerbaijan for
its own lands. It was a result of complicated situation in Nagorny
Karabakh and around it.

In 1922 the Azerbaijan SSR was included into the USSR. Within the
latter the attributes of republics' independence were a formality. On
July 7, 1923 the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan issued a
decree "On the establishment of Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous region".
Thus, the government of the Azerbaijan SSR by the act of law created
an autonomy on the territory of Azerbaijan in the interests of its
Armenian citizens. At the same time, three hundred thousands of
Azerbaijanis who have lived in compact settlements in Armenia were
refused even cultural autonomy by the governments of both the USSR and
the Armenian SSR. That violated their rights and had eventually led to
multiple deportations in 1948-1950 and to more than one dramatic
forced resettlement from Armenia, including more than 200, 000 in
1988-1989 alone.

It is necessary to emphasize that after the establishment of Soviet
rule all over the South Caucasus in 1921, the territories that had
been captured and separated from the Republic of Azerbaijan weren't
claimed by the government of the Azerbaijan SSR. On the contrary, the
next, "peaceful" stage of separation started with the assistance of
communist leadership of Russia and the Soviet Union. In 1921
"acquisition" of the province of Zangezur by Armenia was legalized,
which led to complete isolation of Nakhchivan from Azerbaijan. In 1922
the Bolsheviks dealt with Azerbaijani territories of Dilijan and
Geycha in a similar manner. In 1929 several villages were separated
from Nakhchivan and transferred to Armenian SSR. In 1969 the Armenian
SSR again extended its territory by acquiring Azerbaijani lands, this
time - in the Kedabey district. In 1984 under the pressure from
central authorities, as it had been in the previous years, Azerbaijan
handed a number of villages in the district of Gazakh to Armenia.

Taking into account the above, it's crucially important to underline
that as of January 1, 1920 the territory of the Democratic Republic of
Azerbaijan was 113,900 square km. Now the territory of the Republic of
Azerbaijan is 86,600 square km. According to the population census of
1989, the population of the Autonomous Region of Nagorny Karabakh
(ARNK) was 186,100. 138,600 of them were Armenians (73,5%) and 47,500
Azerbaijanis (25,3%).

The new stage of the Armenian-Azerbaijan confrontation at the end of
the 1980s was caused not by the far-fetched suppositions about
"discrimination of the Armenian minority" in Azerbaijan and economic
hardships, but by the beginning of implementation of long-conceived
plans of expansion. The most favorable conditions for that were
created in the period of collapse. Beginning in February 1988,
Armenia, with the connivance of the leadership of the USSR, instigated
anti-constitutional activities by the administrative structures of the
ARNK. Those steps became the prologue of the wide-scale armed
aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan.



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http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh2.htm


The process of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict
(information)

Chronology of the conflict from 1988 up to present days.

History of the second Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict throughout the
20th century takes its beginning from February, 1988, when the session
of the Council of Oblast (local legislature) of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
adopted decision to secede from Azerbaijan and to unite with Armenia.
Not a confessional and ethnic factors are the basis of the conflict
which started as local clashes and turned into one of the most
long-standing and bloody conflicts in post-war Europe. Its roots are
in the expansionism and policy of territorial aggression aimed at the
expansion of the territory of a state by means of the armed abruption
and forceful seizure of a part of the territory of another sovereign
state, which is a member of the UN, OSCE and other international
organisations.

A prologue of a full-scale armed aggression against Azerbaijan became
anti-constitutional actions by separatist groups in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region, supported by and controlled from outside
completely contradicting International Law and the Soviet legislation
in vigour that time.

Having begun with organising of the illegal meetings, strikes and
actions of disobediences, the Republic of Armenia started to establish
the unconstitutional power institutions in the Nagorno-Karabakh region
of Azerbaijan. The military formations as well as a huge amount of
weapons and ammunitions were shipped on the territory of Azerbaijan. A
military bridgehead was set up to conduct an armed aggression against
Azerbaijan.

Full-scale hostilities in the zone of the Armenian-Azerbaijani
conflict triggered at the end of 1991 - early 1992. Armenian armed
formations, using the most modern weapon systems, deployed combat
operations in the Nagorno-Karabakh region, culmination of which became
a seizure of the city of Khodjali in February, 1992 resulted in nearly
800 peaceful inhabitants, including the olds, women and children,
brutally killed, and occupation of the Shusha rayon in May, 1992.
Thereupon, armed actions were beyond the administrative boundaries of
the region and expanded to the rest of Azerbaijan and the
Armenia-Azerbaijani border, including its Nakhchivan zone. Pending the
period from May, 1992 until May, 1994 6 more rayons of Azerbaijan were
occupied.

Thus, as a result of aggression against the Republic of Azerbaijan,
more than 17.000 km2 were occupied that constitute about 20% of the
whole territory of the Azerbaijan Republic, more than 18 000 persons
were killed, over 50 000 are wounded or invalidated, more than 877
settlements, 100 thousand dwellings, more 1 thousand economic objects,
more than 600 schools, 250 medical institutions looted or ruined.
Internally displaced persons exceeded 800 000 persons and plus nearly
200 000 refugees from Armenia representing disastrous figures for the
country with 8 mln. population.
Humanitarian situation. As a result of ethnic cleansing, a dramatic
humanitarian situation in Azerbaijan produced. The most of refugees
and IDPs were accommodated in the tent camps, schools and student's
hostels. In spite of undertaking efforts, they constantly threaten to
perish with chill and epidemics due to the insufficient level of
shelter and sanitary living conditions. The problem is aggravated by
the presence of children and the olds. Although the total humanitarian
aid sent to Azerbaijan in 1997 has formed 60 mln. US dollars, for a
present day that falls short of a minimum need of the people affected
by the conflict.

Arms supply to Armenia. Illegal supplies of the Russian weapon to
Armenia from 1994 to 1996, including 84 tanks T-72, 50 ACVs, 32
operative-tactical missiles R-17 with range of up to 300 km, capable
to carry nuclear warheads, and other arms worth of 1 billion US
dollars, as well as the resent supply by Russia to Armenia of upgraded
aircrafts MiG-29 and anti-aircraft systems S-300 worth of 2 billion US
dollars, cause a particular concern of Azerbaijan. These supplies
violate norms of International Law, principles of the peaceful
settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict, upset military
political balance in the region and threaten the security of all
states of the region. Such illegal actions are in the contradiction
with the UN Security Councils Resolution 853, Statement of Chairman of
Security Council as of August 18 1993, and decision of a OSCE
Committee of Senior Officials as of 28 February and March, 14 1992,
which require to cancel a military supplies to the states, involved to
the conflict, as promoting the escalation of the conflict and
continuation of the occupation of the Azerbaijani territories.
Illegal supplies are also in the direct contradiction with provisions
of CFE Agreement.

Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Armenia
on the friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance. Signed on
August 29, 1997. Practically, it constitutes a military alliance
between two states. A signing of such Agreement testifies that, on the
one hand, the Republic of Armenia is not going to solve the
Armenian-Azerbaijani armed conflict by the political means, but sees a
further development of situation in the region as a continuation of
armed confrontations with the Azerbaijan Republic, and on the another
hand, Russian Federation falls short with its obligations as a state
of Co-Chairman of the OSCE Minsk Conference.

Azerbaijan considers this Agreement as a factor that aggravates, in a
considerable extent, tense situation in the armed conflict, and
weakens hopes of region's peoples for the peaceful settlement of the
Armenian-Azerbaijan conflict, normalisation of relations between the
Azerbaijan Republic and the Republic of Armenia and establishment of
peace and security in the region.

It is already 4,5 years as cease-fire regime, reached on May 12, 1994,
has been operating. However, recently, a provocative activity of the
Armenian armed units, deployed along the Line of Contact, gains more
impudent nature and pursues a purpose to compel Azerbaijan to drop
into the new turn of combat actions. It is worthwhile to note that an
Armenian party broke an Agreement on cease-fire regime 1271 times
since it was reached on May, 1994, up to May, 1998. Altogether, for
this period of time 188 persons were killed, 366 wounded.

The liberation of prisoners of war (POW). Activities with the
mediation ICRC on the liberation POWs and hostages are continuing.
From 1993 up to May, 1998, there were exchanges between parties, as a
result of which 357 persons were liberated - 102 Armenians and 255
Azerbaijanis. However, according to the Ministry of National Security
of the Republic of Azerbaijan, more than 800 Azerbaijanis are
remaining in Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh region.

On November 23-26, 1998 during a visit of OSCE Chairman-in-Office
Bronislav Geremek to the region as action for strengthening of
confidence the agreement on exchange of all POWs was reached between
the Parties.

Chronology of the negotiation process. International mediation on the
settlement of the conflict takes its beginning from February, 1992,
within the framework of so called OSCE Minsk process, which is the
only forum on the elaboration of comprehensive model of settlement of
the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict.

Minsk Group - a forum on preparation of Minsk conference- was
established aiming at political settlement of this issue, which
comprises Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, USA, France, Poland, Germany,
Turkey, Belarus, Finland, Sweden, Italy.

After the beginning of hostilities and seizure of Azerbaijani cities,
UN Security Council adopted Resolutions 822, 853, 874, 884, that
stipulate immediate and unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed
formations from the territory of Azerbaijan and returning of refugees
and internally displaced persons to their homes.

Main landmarks in the negotiating process have become the Helsinki
Additional meeting CSCE Council on March 24, 1992, the OSCE Budapest
and Lisbon Summits.

In accordance with decision of the OSCE Budapest Summit, 1994, the
institute of Co-Chairmen of the Minsk conference was created, which
were entrusted "to conduct speedy negotiations for the conclusion of a
political agreement on the cessation of the armed conflict ("Big
Political Agreement"), the implementation of which will eliminate
major consequences of the armed conflict for all parties and permit
the convening of the Minsk Conference".

Thereby, as a result of the Budapest Summit, the legal two-stage
framework of the settlement process was completely composed:

1) First stage - elimination of the consequences of the armed conflict
by the implementation of the Agreement, which means a full liberation
of all occupied territories and ensuring a return of IDPs to their
homes;

2) Second stage - elaboration and adoption of a comprehensive peace
settlement at the Minsk conference.

There was also a decision agreed upon at the Budapest Summit to
establish the OSCE peacekeeping operation after the conclusion of the
political Agreement. After Budapest, 17 rounds and many consultations
with participants of the conflict were organised and conducted by the
Co-Chairmen (Russia-Finland).

During that time, 75% of the Agreement's draft and its Annexes were
agreed upon. Yet, a consent on the principal issues such as full
liberation of all territories, including Shusha and Lachin rayons,
security of parties to the conflict and withdrawal of units of armed
forces of Armenia from the territory of Azerbaijan has not been
achieved.

Three principles of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani
conflict were formulated in the Statement of the OSCE
Chairman-in-Office at Lisbon Summit, 1996. They are following:

- territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan
Republic;

- legal status of Nagorny Karabakh defined in an agreement based on
self-determination which confers on Nagorny Karabakh the highest
degree of self-rule within Azerbaijan;

- guaranteed security for Nagorny Karabakh and its whole population,
including mutual obligations to ensure kipping by all the Parties of
the provisions of the settlement.

These principles were supported by 53 the OSCE state-participants,
except Armenia.

Since November, 1996, Armenia unilaterally has broken direct
consultations between Advisers of Presidents of Armenia and
Azerbaijan.

After Lisbon Summit and establishing of an institute of the triple
Co-Chairmanship (Russia-France-USA), only one round of negotiations
(in April, 1997) was conducted, which ended without particular
results.

On June-September, 1997, the Co-Chairmanship elaborated and submitted
a new document for consideration of the Parties envisaging two-staged
conflict settlement according to the following scheme:

On the first stage - a liberation of 6 rayons, occupied in the course
of the conflict that are outside of the former NKAO (except Lachin
rayon), return of civil population and restoration of the main
communications in the region of conflict.

On the second stage - a resolution of the situation around Lachin and
Shusha rayons and adoption of the main principles of the status of the
Nagorno-Karabakh region.

The final comprehensive settlement of the conflict, including an
Agreement on the status of self-rule of NK within Azerbaijan, will be
reached at the Minsk conference.

On October 1, 1997, Azerbaijan officially informed Co-Chairmanship on
its consent with the document as basis for the upcoming negotiations.

On October, 1997, in Strasbourg, the Presidents of Azerbaijan and
Armenia made a Joint Statement on readiness to resume negotiations on
the basis of Co-Chairmen's proposals.

On December, 1997, in Copenhagen, a Report of Co-Chairmen, emphasizing
a need to continue efforts on the settlement of conflict on the basis
of Lisbon principles and proposals of Co-Chairmanship, was distributed
at the OSCE Ministerial Council's meeting.

On May 13-17, 1998, during a visit of Co-Chairmen to the region,
Armenia officially stated about the recall of consent of former
President of Armenia with proposals on stage-by-stage settlement, and
spoke for a package settlement without preconditions.

On November 9, 1998, Co-Chairmen introduced new proposals on package
settlement of conflict based on a concept of "common state".
Azerbaijan from the very beginning during the consultations of
November 9 refused to accept these proposals, and on November 19 sent
written response to Co-Chairmen, officially informing the mediators on
unacceptability of proposals of November 9. Azerbaijan confirmed its
readiness to resume negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group on the
basis of Co-Chairmen's proposals of September 19, 1997.

On November 20, 1998, the Delegation of Azeri community of NK
officially rejected proposals of November 9, and on November, 25
Armenia and Armenians of NK have stated on acceptability for them of
the mentioned proposals.

On December 2-3, 1998, in the course of meeting of the OSCE Ministers
of Foreign Affairs in Oslo a special paragraph on the Minsk process
was included in to Chairman-in-Office's Summary, that consists an
appeal to the parties of the conflict to resume immediately the
negotiations in the framework of MG and to Co-Chairmen to continue
their efforts to promote negotiations and quest of resolution.

On April, 1999 during CIS summit in Moscow there was held meeting
between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia, where arrangement
about holding of further meetings for discussions of peace settlement
of Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict was reached. Opinion and positions
exchange between the parties was continued at the meetings between the
presidents in Washington on April, 24, in Geneva on August, 16 and 22
and in Yalta on September, 10. In the course of these meetings
arrangements for cease-fire strengthening and resumption of
negotiation process within the framework of OSCE Minsk Group were
reached.


++++++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh3.htm



CHRONOLOGY OF THE ARMENIAN -AZERBAIJANI CONFLICT (1988-1999)

- 1987 -

October - First meeting in Yerevan (Armenia) took place with
challenges to annex the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous region (NKAR) of
the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic to the Armenian Soviet
Socialist Republic (SSR).

- 1988 -

January 25 - Exodus of Azerbaijanis living in the Armenian SSR began.

February 22-23 - The first meetings in Baku and Sumgait took place
with a slogan: "NKAR is the integral part of Azerbaijan".

February 24 - For the first time, in the course of the
Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict blood was shed: in NKAR two Azerbaijanis
were killed.

February 27 - Strikes started in NKAR with the demand to be separated
from Azerbaijan.

February 28-29 - Pogroms and massive disorders in Sumgait took place.
There were people, among the organisers of pogroms, of Armenian
Nationality.

March 18 - Plenary Session of NKAR's regional Committee adopted a
decision on annexation of NKAR to Armenia.

March 24 - Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party and Council
of Ministers adopted a resolution "On measures for speeding up the
social-economic development of NKAR of the Azerbaijan SSR in
1988-1995".

The first decade of May - More than one thousand Azerbaijani refugees,
deported from Armenia, came to Azerbaijan.

May 18 - Meetings took place in Baku as a sign of protest against
ejection of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.

The first decade of June - Discrimination acts against Azerbaijanis in
NKAR broke out. In a few days about 2.000 people were ejected.

June 14 - According to State Committee on Statistics of Azerbaijan
four more thousand refugees fled to the Republic.

The last decade of June - Ejection of Azerbaijanis from Armenia is
going on.

July 12 - The Session of People's Deputies of the Regional Soviet in
NKAR adopted an anti-constitutional decision on separation from the
Azerbaijani SSR.

July 13 - Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
considered the decision of the session of the Regional Soviet from
July 12, 1988, as an illicit act.

July 18 - The enlarged meeting of the Presidium of the USSR's Supreme
Soviet endorsed NKAR as belonging to the Azerbaijani SSR.

September 3-21 - Series of terrorist acts against Azerbaijanis in
NKAR, setting out fire to houses and killing peaceful Azerbaijani
population in Stepanakert.

November 18 - December 5 - Meetings took place in Baku with the demand
to put an end to terrorist acts against Azerbaijanis in NKAR.

November 24 - The State of Emergency was announced in Baku,
Nakhchivan, Ganja.

November 27-29 - As a result of anti-Azerbaijani massacres 33
Azerbaijanis were killed in the cities of Gugark, Spitak and
Stepanavan of the Armenian SSR.

The second part of December - Exodus of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.
More than 105 thousand refugees fled to Azerbaijan from the Armenian
SSR.

- 1989 -

January 12 - In the territory of NKAR of Azerbaijan SSR a form of
ruling was applied: Committee of special ruling was set up.

May-June - The First Congress of the People's Deputies decided to form
a Commission of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on Nagorny Karabakh

July 7 - The Azerbaijani village of Karkijahan in NKAR was fired.

July 11 - The escalation of the situation in NKAR. An armed assault on
Azerbaijanis in Stepanakert. People were killed.

July 29 - The traffic of trains from Azerbaijan to Armenia was cut
short because of the attacks to the trains in the territory of
Armenia. The beginning of the blockade of Nakhchivan Autonomous
Republic of Azerbaijan by Armenia.

August 16 - There was the congress of the authoritative
representatives of Armenian population of NKAR in Stepanakert, those
refused to recognise the status of NKAR, as an autonomous region of
Azerbaijan.

August 27 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani
Republic declared as illegal the decision of the congress of
authoritative representatives of the Armenian population of NKAR from
August 16, 1989.

The last decade of September - Strikes of the Azerbaijani railroaders
in connection with the attacks to the trains in the territory of
Armenia.

The second decade of October - The beginning of the blockade of Shusha
region of NKAR, majority of the population of which is Azerbaijanis
(91,7%).

The second decade of November - Assaults on Azerbaijani trains in the
territory of the Armenian SSR, caused the stopping rail road traffic
between the Azerbaijani SSR and the Armenian SSR.

November 28 - The Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution "on
measures for normalising the situation in NKAR". It was decided to
form the republican organisational committee on NKAR and to restore
the activity of the regional council of the people's deputies, by
abolishing the Committee of special rule of NKAR.

December 1 - The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR passed an
anti-constitutional resolution "On reunification of the Armenian SSR
and Nagorny Karabakh".

The first and second decades of December - Number of attacks from the
territory of Armenia to the border villages of Azerbaijan were
registered. The Infantry brigands from the territory of Armenia were
landed in the regions of Khanlar and Shaumyan of Azerbaijan.

December 7 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani
SSR assessed this resolution of the Armenian Supreme Soviet from
December 1, 1989 as inadmissible interference in the affairs of the
Azerbaijani SSR, encroachment on its territorial integrity.

- 1990 -

January 9 - The session of the Armenian Supreme Soviet, considering
the issues of planning and budget for 1990, included in its sphere of
influence the plans of social-economic development of NKAR.

January 9 - Seizure of the Azerbaijani hostages by Armenians in the
region of Shaumyan of Azerbaijan SSR.

January 4-10 - An illegal supply of about 100 tanks, artillery and
anti-aircraft weapons by the Soviet Army to Armenia.

January 11 - The Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet condemned the decision of
the Armenian Supreme Soviet to include NKAR in its economic sphere and
assessed it as a grave violation of the sovereignty of the Azerbaijan
Republic.

January 13 - As a result of the armed attacks Armenians occupied the
village of Karki in Nakhchivan AR.

January 15 - An armed Armenian infantry were landed in the village of
Gushchu of Khanlar region.

January 19 - Armenians assaulted on the settlement of Sadarak in
Nakhchivan AR.

January 20 - The Soviet troops entered Baku, as a result 124 people
were killed, 737 people were wounded. The State of emergency was
declared in Baku and in other cities of Azerbaijan.

January 21 - The Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR demanded the
immediate withdrawal of the Soviet troops from Baku

February 13 - The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR passed a
resolution "On admission as illegal the decision of the Caucasian
Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party of July
5, 1921", which left NKAR as part of the Azerbaijani SSR.

March 6 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
passed a resolution "On inadmissibility of territorial claims by the
Armenian SSR".

March 7 - The Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution "On the
situation in the Azerbaijani SSR and Armenian SSR and on the measures
for normalising the situation in this region".

March 24 - The attack of the armed thugs of the Armenian SSR to the
villages of the Gazakh region of the Azerbaijani SSR. All civilians of
these villages were killed.

May 22 - The attempts to organise elections of the people's deputies
of the Armenian SSR in the territory of the NKAR failed.

May 25 - The resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR
"On anti-constitutional decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian
SSR and its Presidium concerning NKAR of the Azerbaijani SSR."

June 25 - Decree of the President of the USSR "On prohibition to form
armed forces which are not envisaged in the legislation of the USSR
and confiscation of illegally kept weapons".

June 29 - The Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijani SSR passed a
resolution "On resumption of sovereign rights of the Azerbaijani SSR
in NKAR and measures for social economical development of the region".

September 23 - The People's deputies of the USSR from Azerbaijan
appealed the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On forcible deportation of
the Azerbaijani population of Armenia".

- 1991 -

January-May - The Armenian thugs committed terrorist acts against the
leadership of the Committee of the special directorate of NKAR, the
armed attacks and firing of the Azerbaijani villages.

May 9 - The USSR Ministry of the Internal Affairs, KGB and Ministry of
Defence take measures for disarmament of the illegal Armenian armed
forces and confiscation of weapons in the districts near the border of
Azerbaijan and Armenia, as well as in NKAR of the Azerbaijani SSR.

June 29 - The Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani
Republic draws the attention of the USSR President and the Supreme
Soviet of the USSR to the new stage of escalation of Armenian thugs
groups attacks in NKAR, as well as passes a decision to mom up the
territory of NKAR from the thugs groups dispatched from Armenia and
finish the measures of the USSR presidential decree banning the
formation of armed forces.

September 2 - The Armenian separatists declared the establishment of
so called "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR)" in the territory of
Nagorny Karabakh region of the Azerbaijani Republic. All the armed
groups of about 15.000 were formed as "self-defence forces of NKR" and
subordinated to the Committee of Defence.

The middle of September - The Armenian armed forces began attacks the
western part of Goranboy district of Azerbaijan and occupied number of
inhabited settlements.

September 23 - Meeting of Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in
Zheleznovodsk (Russia) mediated by the Russian and Kazakhstan
Presidents. There was reached an agreement on peaceful settlement of
the conflict.

October-November - The Armenian armed forces launched hostilities to
drive the Azerbaijani population out from the territories of Martuni
and Hadrut districts of the NKAR. The USSR air forces took part in the
hostilities supporting the Armenian forces. The Armenian forces
occupied about 30 settlements.

November 20 - Near the village of Garakend of the Khojavand district
of the Azerbaijan Republic the helicopter "MI-8" was shot down, in
which there was the peacemaking group of the Russian, Kazakhstan
representatives and the senior leadership of Azerbaijan. The murder of
22 people, including the state figures of the 3 countries put an end
the first attempt for peaceful settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani
conflict, undertaken in Zheleznovodsk and gave an impetus to the
escalation of violence in the region.

The middle of December - The forces of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the USSR were withdrawn from the territory of Nagorny
Karabakh. Illegal transfer of weapons to Armenia by the Ministry of
Internal Affairs of the USSR.

December 30 - The leaders of CIS countries called on Azerbaijan and
Armenia to resume the negotiation process.

- 1992 -

January - The armed forces of Armenia relying on the support of rifle
regiment 366 of the Russian armed forces, launched the occupation of
the last Azerbaijani settlements of Karabakh which were in a complete
isolation.

January 30-31 - The second meeting of the Council of CSCE (Prague).
Azerbaijan and Armenia got the membership of CSCE. It was decided to
send a mission of rapporteurs to the region of conflict.

The first half of February - Occupation of the suburb of Stepanakert
(Karkijahan), as well as the Azerbaijani settlements along the road of
Shusha-Khojaly and around Shusha.

February 12-18 - First visit of the CSCE mission of rapporteur to the
region.

February 25-26 - Assault and seizure of the city of Khojaly
(Nagorno-Karabakh region, Azerbaijan) by military forces of Armenia
and with the participation of 366 Infantry regiment of the Russian
military forces, as a result 800 civilians were brutally killed.

The end of February - Evacuation of the staff of the 366 Infantry
regiment of the Russian military forces from Stepanakert and illegal
transfer of 25 tanks, 87 armoured infantry fighting vehicles, 28
armoured vehicles, 45 artillery mortar systems to Armenians.

March 24 - Additional Helsinki meeting of the CSCE Council, decision
to convene a conference on Nagorny Karabakh under the aegis of the
CSCE. Chairman-in-Office designated Mr. Rafaelli as a Chairman of the
Minsk Conference.

April - Beginning of the activity of Russia as mediator.

May 7 - Meeting of the Heads of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Tehran
through the mediation of Iran (meeting was devoted to the
normalisation of the situation in Nagorny Karabakh and to the peaceful
settlement of the conflict).

May 8 - Military Forces of the Russian Army occupied azerbaijani city
Shusha and Shusha region (Nagorny Karabakh) that led to the breakdown
of agreements reached in Tehran. As the result of the occupation of
Shusha region 23156 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent
residences. Thus, there was finished ethnic cleansing in Nagorny
Karabakh.

May 18-19 - Military forces of the Republic of Armenia occupied Lachin
region, which was outside Nagorny Karabakh. As the result of this
occupation 63341 Azerbaijanis were banished from their homes. At the
same time military forces of the Russian Army attacked strategically
important part of the Azerbaijani-Turkish border in Sadarak region
(Nakhchivan).

May 18-19 - In connection with the occupation of Lachin district of
Azerbaijan decision making on an extraordinary preparing meeting of
the CSCE participating states at the Conference on Nagorny Karabakh
which was held under the aegis of CSCE was failed.

June-September - Rounds of negotiations were held within the framework
of the CSCE Minsk group on the cessation of the offensive operations,
de-escalation of the conflict and normalisation of the life of
ordinary citizens.

September 19 - Agreements on cessation of all military actions in 2
months period reached by Defence Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan
with the participation of the Ministers of defence and Security of
Russia (Sochi).

September-November - Visits and consultations of the Russian mediator
mission in the region.

November 26-December 1 - Meeting of the CSCE Ad-hoc group with the
competence of advanced group of observes (Vienna).

December 7-9 - Unofficial meeting of the personal representatives of
the Presidents of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, USA and Turkey
(Geneva).

December 9-12 - Violation of the agreement reached between Defence
Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Sochi, Armenia occupied 8
villages of Zangelan district of Azerbaijan.

- 1993 -

February 5 - Beginning of the large-scale attacks of the military
forces of the Russian Army in the northern part of the front.

March 17-21 - Meeting of Personal Representatives of Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Russia, USA, Turkey and chairman of the CSCE Minsk group.

March 27-April 3 - Occupation of Kalbadjar district of Azerbaijan by
the armed forces of Armenia, which is situated outside of Nagorny
Karabakh, as a result of this 60698 Azerbaijanis were driven out from
their permanent residences.

March 31 - Resumption of the meeting in Geneva. Personal
Representative of the President of USA is breaking off the
negotiations because of the occupation of Kalbadjar district of
Azerbaijan by Armenia.

April 6 - The Statement of the Chairman of the UN Security Council,
condemning the occupation of the district of Kalbadjar.

April 30 - The adoption of the resolution 822 by UN Security Council,
demanding "the immediate withdrawal of all occupying forces from the
district of Kalbadjar and other recently occupied districts of
Azerbaijan".

June 3-4 - The Consultations of "the Minsk Nine". Adoption of
"Schedule of urgent measures on implementation of the resolution 822
of the UN Security Council".

June 17 - The arrangement through the mediation of Russia on ceasing
of bombardment of Aghdam and Stepanakert.

June 26-28 - The armed forces of the Republic of Armenia captured the
city of Aghdara of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

June 27 - The arrangement through mediation of Russia on ceasing
hostilities, shelling and air bombardment for one week in the
districts of Mardakert and Aghdam.

July 12 - The visit of Mr. Rafaelli to Baku, Yerevan and Stepanakert
aiming at adoption of the schedule of the Minsk Group.

July 18-20 - The visit of the mediator mission of Russia to Baku.

July 23-24 - The occupation of the district of Aghdam of Azerbaijan,
which is situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, by the armed forces of
Armenia, as a result 158000 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their
permanent residences.

July 29 - The adoption of the resolution 853 by the UN Security
Council, "demanding the immediate, complete and unconditional
withdrawal of occupation forces involved in the conflict from the
district of Aghdam and all other recently occupied districts of the
Azerbaijan Republic.

July 21-August 12 - Consultations of OSCE Minsk Group. It was adopted
"the schedule of urgent measures for implementing of the resolution
822 and 853 of the UN Security Council".

August 11 - Beginning of attacks of the Armenian armed forces to the
district centers of Fizuli and Jabrail of Azerbaijan.

August 18 - The statement of the UN Security Council's Chairman on
immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of the occupation
forces from the districts of Fizuli, as well as Kalbadjar and Aghdam
and other recently occupied districts of the Azerbaijan Republic.

August 23 - The occupation of the district of Fizuli of Azerbaijan,
situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh by the Armenian armed forces, as
a result 152860 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent
residences.

August 25-26 - The Armenian armed forces occupied the district of
Jabrail, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result 57125
Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent residences.

August 31 - The Armenian armed forces occupied the district of Gubadly
of Azerbaijan, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result 31364
Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent residences.

September 21-28 - Negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group were held
in Paris.

October 14 - The UN SC passed a resolution 874, calling on the parties
"to abstain from any hostile acts and any interference or invasion,
which could led to escalation of the conflict and undermine peace and
security in the region".

October 18-21 - Negotiations within the framework of the Minsk Group.

October 23 - Part of the military forces of the Armenian Republic
assaulted the settlement of Horadiz with tanks. Having occupied this
important transport unit, the Armenians cut off the district of
Zangelan and part of none-occupied territory of Jabrail and Gubadly
from the remaining part of the Republic.

October 28 - The military forces of the Armenian Republic occupied the
rail road station of Minjivan.

October 28-November 1 - The occupation of the district of Zangelan,
Azerbaijan, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result, 34924
Azerbaijanis were driven out by the armed forces of Armenia from their
permanent residences.

November 11 - The UN SC passed a resolution 884, demanding "immediate
cease fire and hostility, unilateral withdrawal of occupation forces
from the district of Zangelan and the city of Horadiz and withdrawal
of occupation forces from other districts of Azerbaijan, captured
recently".

November 20 - Firing of the mediator mission of Russia by the Armenian
side. The statement of the former Russian Foreign Minister A.Kozirev
on this matter.

December 10 -The Armenian military forces launched an assault in the
direction of district center of Beylagan.

- 1994 -

January-March - Series of negotiations and consultations to reach an
agreement on cease fire through the mediation of Russia and CSCE.

March 3 - Having broken off the next cease fire agreement, the
Armenian troops resumed the hostilities.

March 31-April 3 - Visit of the peacemaker group of the
Inter-parliamentary Assembly of CIS headed by Speaker of Kyrgizstan
Supreme Council, together with Russian President's representative, to
Baku, Yerevan, and Nagorny Karabakh.

April 9-10 - The command of the Armenian Military Forces launched
large scale assault in the direction of Terter during 33 days.

May 4-5 - The Bishkek meeting of the parliamentary leaders of
Azerbaijan and Armenia and the representatives of the both communities
from Nagorny Karabakh. The "Bishkek protocol" was adopted.

May 9 - The defence ministers of Azerbaijan, Armenia and the
representatives of the Armenian separatist regime from Nagorny
Karabakh signed a cease fire agreement.

May 12 - In the zone of conflict the regime of cease fire started
functioning. Active hostilities on the line of the front came to an
end.

May 19 - The CSCE Permanent Committee. It was passed a statement as a
support for the agreement to strengthening of the cease fire regime.

June 27 - An agreement was signed by the parties as confirmation of
their commitments on cease fire regime up to conclusion of the
political agreement. The joint statement for to support this agreement
was made by the leader of mediator mission of Russia and the chairman
of the Minsk Conference.

August 28 - Unilateral statement of all sides involved in the conflict
and confirmation of the commitments on observation of cease fire
regime until the political agreement to be concluded.

September-November - Continuation of the negotiations between the
competent representatives of the leaders of sides involved in the
conflict in Moscow.

December 5-6 - Meeting of Heads of CSCE member states and governments
in Budapest ("Budapest Decision"). In accordance with the decision of
the summit, it was established an institute of Co-Chairmen of the
Minsk Conference; two stage structuring of the settlement process was
completed; decision was taken on the OSCE peacekeeping operations
after achievement of the political agreement. - 1995 -

May-December - Series of negotiations within the framework of OSCE
Minsk Group on elaboration of agreement for cession of the military
conflict.

- 1996 -

January-November - Series of negotiations within the framework of OSCE
Minsk Group on elaboration of agreement for cessation of the military
conflict.

December 2-3 - Meeting of the Heads of OSCE States and governments in
Lisbon. In the statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office three
principles of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict were
formulated:

- territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of
Azerbaijan;

- legal status of Nagorny Karabakh defined in the agreement based on
self-determination which confers on Nagorny Karabakh the highest
degree of self rule within Azerbaijan;

- guaranteed security for Nagorny Karabakh and its whole population,
including mutual commitments to ensure compliance by all parties with
the provisions of the settlement.

These principles were supported by 53 OSCE participating states,
except Armenia.

- 1997 -

February 13 - A. Tuleyev, the Minister on cooperation with CIS states
made a statement on the facts of illegal supply of the Russian weapons
to Armenia worth of 270 billion of rubles

February 14- An institute of "triple" Co-Chairmanship of the OSCE
Minsk Conference (Russia, USA and France) was established.

March 4-7 - The Azerbaijani parliamentary delegation headed by Arif
Rahimzadeh, the first deputy chairman of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis
(Parliament) stayed in Moscow in order to find out the circumstances
on the fact of supply of the Russian weapons to the Republic of
Armenia.

March 14 - Appeal of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis to B.Yeltsin, the
President of Russia, E.Stroyev, the Chairman of the Council of
Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,
G.Seleznyev, the Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of
the Russian Federation.

April 2 - The report of Lev Rokhlin, the Chairman of the Defence
Committee of the State Duma, on delivery of the Russian weapons to the
Republic of Armenia worth of one billion US dollars.

April 4 - Appeal of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis to B.Yeltsin,
E.Stroyev and G.Seleznyev.

April 1-5 - The next round of the negotiations within the framework of
OSCE Minsk Group was held, after it the Armenian side refused to hold
further negotiations on the basis of proposals made by the
Co-Chairmen, worked out according to the principles of the OSCE Lisbon
Summit.

April 4-8 - The Azerbaijani parliamentary delegation headed by Arif
Rahimzadeh, the first deputy Chairman of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis
(Parliament) stayed in Moscow in order to find out the circumstances
on the facts of supply of the Russian weapons to the Republic of
Armenia.

April 15 - The OSCE delegation headed by A.Kasprzyk, the Personal
Representative of the Chairman-in-Office of OSCE, was fired by the
Armenian side.

April 24 - The statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office in connection
with the fire of A.Kasprzyk, the Personal Representative of the
Chairman-in-Office in the zone of conflict.

June 23 - The Denver Statement of the Presidents of the US, Russia and
France, supporting the search of ways for the settlement on the basis
of the Lisbon principles.

September 1 - Illegal so-called "presidential elections" in Nagorny
Karabakh, which was condemned by the world Community.

September 23-24 - Visit of the delegation of Co-Chairmen of the OSCE
Minsk Group to Baku. Proposal on the stage-by-stage settlement.

October 10 - Strasbourg Joint Statement of the Presidents of
Azerbaijan and Armenia on supporting plan of the stage-by-stage
settlement of the conflict.

December 17-19 - The Meeting of the OSCE Ministers of Foreign Affairs
in Copenhagen. The Chairman-in-Office requested the Co-Chairmen of
Minsk Group "to continue their work and urged all sides to resume the
negotiations without delay on the basis of the proposal of the
Co-Chairmen".

- 1998 -

April - The refusal of Armenia from the early reached agreements on
the stage-by-stage settlement of the conflict.

May 13-17 - Visit of the Co-Chairmen to the region. Armenia officially
declared about the renunciation of the consent of the former President
of the Republic of Armenia with the proposal on the stage-by-stage
settlement and supported the package settlement without any
preliminary conditions.

July 14-15 - Visit of I.Sergeyev, the Russian Defence Minister, to
Armenia, in the course of which an agreement on supply of
anti-aircraft weapons S-300 was reached.

November 8-10 - The OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairmen offered a new plan of
settlement of the conflict, based on the principle of "common state".
The Azerbaijani side refused to accept this proposal as a basis of
resumption of negotiations. Azerbaijan confirmed its readiness to
resume negotiations within the framework of the OSCE Minsk Group on
the basis of the proposals of the Co-Chairmen of September 19, 1997,
on the stage-by-stage settlement of the conflict.

December 2-3 - The meeting of the OSCE Ministers of Foreign Affairs in
Oslo, where the Chairman-in-Office called upon the sides involved in
the conflict to resume the negotiations within the framework of the
Minsk Group without delay.

December 16 - Deliver of 5 Russian MiG-29 fighter aircrafts to
Armenia.

- 1999 -

February 26 - Additional deliver of 5 MiG-29 fighter aircrafts and
surface-to-air missile systems S-300 to Armenia.

March 11 - It was adopted the resolution on "Support of peace process
in Caucasus" on the plenary meeting of the European Parliament for
supporting of the peace plan offered by Minsk Group and continuation
of the efforts for long-termed settlement of the conflict.

March 19 - Milli Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Azerbaijan
appealed to the European Parliament, criticizing some provisions of
the resolution on "Support of peace process in Caucasus".

April, 2 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia H.
Aliyev and R. Kocharian was held in Moscow. The arrangement about
intensification of contacts and opinion exchange for seeking of ways
for conflict settlement was reached between the presidents.

April, 24 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia
H. Aliyev and R. Kocharian was held in Washington through mediation M.
Albright. There was put proposals for development of regional
cooperation and measures for strengthening of confidence. As a result,
Washington declaration was adopted.

May - Delivery 8 rockets "Tayfun" with range 60-80 km by China to
Armenia

May, 25 - Hearings on Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict settlement at the
meeting of EC PA Commission on political issues. Speaker of Azerbaijan
parliament M. Aleskerov and leader of Azerbaijani population of
Nagorniy Karabakh N. Bakhmanov addressed the meeting, stating position
of Azerbaijan.

June, 3 - Statement of Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Republic in
connection with delivery of "Tayfun" rockets by China to Armenia

June, 14 - Units of armed forces of Armenia violated cease-fire regime
and attacked positions of Azerbaijani troops along the Contact line in
Negorno-Karabakh region. In connection with this incident UN
Secretary-General, OSCE Chairman-in-Office, US State Department and
Foreign Ministry of Russian Federation issued statements.

June, 18 - Additional delivery of 4 fighters MiG-29 by Russia to
Armenia. Foreign Ministry of Georgia made a protest in connection with
violation of airspace of the country by these fighters.

June, 28 - July, 1 - There was adopted two statements at the XXVI
conference of foreign ministries of OIC member-states:
1. About aggression of Republic of Armenia against Republic of
Azerbaijan
2. About demolition and destruction of Islamic historic and cultural
monuments in the occupied territories of the Azerbaijan Republic as a
result of aggression of the Republic of Armenia against the Republic
of Azerbaijan

July, 16 - Meeting of the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in
Geneva. Opinion exchange on conflict settlement.

August, 22 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia
in Geneva. Consultations for seeking of ways for the conflict
settlement were contiued. As a result of negotiations, instructions on
providing the measures for strengthening of cease-fire regime and
resumption of negotiations within the frames of OSCE Minsk Group was
given to foreign and defense ministries of two countries.

September, 1-2 - Visit of OSCE Minsk Group co-chairmen representing
USA and Russian Federation K. Kavanaugh and N. Gribkov to Baku with
the aim to study the situation in the region.

September, 10 - During the international conference "Baltic-Black Sea
Cooperation: Towards an Integrated 21st Century Europe Without
Dividing Lines" in Yalta, meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan
and Armenia was held, and opinion exchange on issues of strengthening
of existing cease-fire regime and seeking of the ways of peace
settlement conflict was continued. The parties agreed to resume
negotiation process within the framework of OSCE Minsk Group.



++++++++++++++




http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh4.htm

Facts on the illegal transfer of arms, equipment and military property
by Russian Federation to the Republic of Armenia

1. The illegal transfer of weapons by Russian Federation to Armenia
from January 1993, to December 1996, i.e., after the completion of
military property parcelling belonged to the former USSR:

N Name Quantity Total cost (in US dollars)

1 R-17 missile systems
R-17 missiles
8 32 1.680.000 6.720.000

2 "Krug" surface-to-air systems
Missiles for them
27 349 8.100.000 104.700.000

3 Missiles for the "Osa"
Surface-to-air systems
40 8.000.000

4 T-72 tanks 84 100.800.000
5 BMP - 2 Armoured
Combat Vehicles
50 14.000.000
6 122 mm D-30 howitzers 36 1.372.000
7 152 mm D-20 howitzers 18 720.000
8 152 mm D-1 howitzers 18 900000
9 "Grad" multiple missile systems 18 4.500.000
10 Mortars 26 312.000
11 Portable "Igla" anti-aircraft systems Missiles for them 40 200
1.600.000 8.000.000
12 Grenade launchers 20 50.000
13 Machine-guns 306 122.400
14 Assault rifles 7910 949.200
15 Pistols 1847 110.820
16 Shells for ACV (BMP-2) 478480 14.354.400
17 Shells (various) 489160 195.664.000
18 BM anti-tank self-targeting missiles
Anti-tank self-targeting missiles
4 945 1.320.000 7.938.000
19 Hand grenades 345800 10.374.000
20 Different types of bullets 227253000 227.253.000
21 Among other types of a arms, engineering and military property
belong: transporting and weapon-loading machines, various types of
movable on-wheels radio (including space communications stations),
sets of communications equipment, field communications cables, targets
detection stations, tanking equipment, fuel, accumulators of various
types (including battle tank ones), oil barrels, spare to tanks,
cannons and BMP's, tank engines etc. 720.039.000
TOTAL - 1.000.000.000

The indicated data are not complete and not final.

The whole process of weapon, engineering and military property
transfer was implemented without any bilateral agreement.

Parts of weapons and engineering were transferred according Directives
of General Staff, signed by the former Chief of General Staff of the
Armed Forces, General Army I.Kolesnikov:

- Directive of General Staff No.316/3/0182 of 29.09.94, on transfer
from 102nd military base located in Gumry 25 T-72 tanks with spares of
13 kinds;

- According Directive No.316/3/0220 of August 18, 1995 and 8/824 of
September 25, 1995, 55 T-72 tanks were granted to Armenia;

- Directive of General Staff No.316/3/048 dated 26.02.1996, on
transfer of 4 T-72 tanks and 50 BMP-2.

Moreover, the Republic of Armenia has received missile-artillery
complex, air-defence systems, missiles, ammunition and other military
property.

Particularly, according to the Directive No.561/16/831 of August 8,
1995, of Russian Federation GS of the Armed Forces 50 MP-38, 20 82 mm
AGS-17 grenade launchers, 300 PK machine-guns, 10000 submachine-guns
were transferred to Ministry of Defence of Armenia.

According Directive No.16/338 of November 23, 1995, the followings
were transferred from the Group of Russian troops in Transcaucasus
(GRVZ) to the Defence Ministry of Armenia: 12 D-30 howitzers, 4 BM-21,
50 (14,5 mm) KPVT machine-guns, 3 (12,7 mm) NSVT machine-guns, 40000
(14.5 mm) B-32 bullets, 64000 BZTA bullets, 110000 MDZ bullets, 10000
(12.7 mm) B-32 bullets as well as 7 fifth category howitzers.

On the basis of the encoded telegram No.2234 of November, 23 1995,
signed by Kolesnikov, the followings were transferred from GRVZ to
Armenia: 100 (14,5 mm) KPVT machine-guns, 20 (12,7 mm) NSVT
machine-guns, 20 (12,7 mm) DSK machine-guns, 30 (12,7 mm) NCV
machine-guns, 4 BM-21, 12 D-30 as well as third category of
ammunition: 50000 (12,7 mm) bullets, 260000 (14,5) bullets, 2420 (125
mm) shells for tank cannon D-81.

In accordance with Directive No. 561/16/457 of March 11, 1996, 4 mln.
bullets and 5000 MRV-U fuses were transferred from GRVZ to Armenia.

By the Directive of General Staff No.503/23-26 of July 20, 1996, 85
tons of spares were transported by 5 IL-76 planes from airport of
Chkalovskaya.

Azerbaijan has also reliable information that Armenia possess R-17
operative-tactical missile complexes able to carry nuclear warheads.
In order to prepare specialists, 20 officers and ensigns from Military
Unit No.51556 of the MoD of Armenia, names of whom are known, had a
training for practical learning to work with these complexes in the
Training Center "Kapoustin Yar" of Russian MoD. After the completing
the course one missile was launched.

Big amount of transfers were carried out even without relevant
Directives of Russian GS AF.

From August 1992 to January 1994 66 IL-76 flights and two AN-12
flights transported about 1300 tons of ammunition from airport of
Mozdok to Yerevan.

From November 8 to November 28, 1995, and from June 28 to August 6,
1996, 31 AN-124 flights and 13 IL-76 flights have transferred 50 T-72
tanks, property and spares to them, 36 D-CI howitzers, 18 D-20
howitzers, 18 D-1 howitzers, 18 "Grad" multiple missiles systems, 40
portable "Igla" anti-aircraft systems and 200 missiles for them, 12600
shells for the mentioned guns, including 1440 for "Grad" systems from
airport "Jasmine" (Akhtubinsk, Russia) to airport of Zvartnots
(Yerevan, Armenia).

The property was shipped to Akhtubinsk by six troop-trains: tanks from
Omsk, ammunition from Volgograd, artillery from Irkutsk, Sverdlovsk,
Perm oblast (areas).

Delivered weapons were transferred further to Nagorny Karabakh where
the acceptance of the armoured vehicles, optic and electronic
equipment and other weapons was done by Colonel Slava Ucnunts, Deputy
MoD of so called "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic" and Marat Garibian, Head
of antitank unit at the armament factories in Nijniy Tagil,
Sankt-Peterburg and other cities of Russia. During the indicated
period the most updated military engineering were delivered to
Armenia. In 1994 Armenians received surface-to-air system "Tunguska"
which was installed in Khankendi, Nagorny Karabakh. All these explains
the reason of appearance of magnificent amount of weapon and
engineering on the occupied by Armenia territories of Azerbaijan:

No. Military Units Location Battle tanks ACV AP
1. 538 Independent Infantry Regiment Aghdaban 13 15 15
2. 2 Independent Infantry Brigade Karakhanbeyli 29 23 36
3. 83 Independent Infantry Brigade Dashkesan 20 27 22
4. Mardakert Infantry Division Mardakert 76 79 74
5. Askeran Infantry Regiment Aghdam 32 43 42
6. Martuni Infantry Regiment Martuni 40 60 40
7. Gadrut Infantry Regiment Gadrut 20 32 22
8. Stepanakert Infantry Regiment Stepanakert 18 28 22
9. Khodjaly Training Unit Khodjaly 52 7 39
10. Shusha Infantry Regiment Shusha 16 10 10



Thus, there are:

Battle Tanks - 316
Armoured Combat vehicles - 324
Artillery Pieces - 322
on the occupied territories of Azerbaijan which exceed the envisaged
for Azerbaijan maximum level for CFE TLE.
At the end of 1993 and beginning of 1994 T-72 battle tanks and ACVs
transferred to Armenia by Russian Federation were captured in the
course of combat activities on the territory of Azerbaijan:

1. BATTLE TANKS T-72
T02BT7975
X06AT3007
E04BT9276
E04BT9264
T02BT7979
E04BT9314
E03BT4785
T02BT7945
K03BT7524
E04BT9261
T02BT7963
E03BT4793
a04ag9250
o06sg3021
a04ag9257
g02ag7940
g02ag8000
a04ag9271
a04ag9317
a03ag4777
g02ag7938
g02ag7961
a04ag9273




ACV (BMP-1) ACV (BMP-2)
u10OO762
u01OO612
u01OO591
A08AO0663
A08AO0683
n01oT3596
X01oT7522
o11oT3236
n01oT6279
n11og3652
n12oT5806
E09oT4046


Arms supply by Russia to Armenia in 1998

On December 15-16, 1998, during a visit of Colonel-General A.Kornukov,
Russia's Air Force Comander-in-Chief, to Armenia there were agreements
reached in the field of Russian-Armenian Military Cooperation. In
particular, they agreed on:

- the concrete technical issues to strengthen Russian Military base
No.102. located in Armenia, and to establish within it a new
air-groups;

- further updating of air-defence system's work, including equipment
by using modern types of weapons, for example, S-300 surface-to-air
systems;

- permanent basing of Russian MiG-29 on the territory of Armenia.

Ten MiG-29 fighter aircrafts were delivered to Armenia in December
1998 and February 1999. At the same time, a anti-aircraft missile
systems S-300 were delivered to Armenia.

Approximate cost of MiG-29 in world weapon market is more than 10 mln.
US dollars.


+++++++++++++++++++++++++





http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/the_war_in_azerbaijan.html


THE WAR

This site is dedicated to all those who lost their lives in the
massacres commited by Armenians in Anatolia and Azerbaijan


The latest conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan started in February
of 1988 and lasts already for more than a decade. In a short time this
conflict was aggravated and turned a real war. Azerbaijani Republic
plunged into the war when it still was a constituency of the Soviet
Union and keeps struggling as an independent state now. From the
viewpoint of International Law the conflict is the result of
aggression of neighboring Armenian Republic, who made timely
preparations for the war in military, political, economic,
propagandist, ideological, psychological and other spheres. And the
command for aggression was the actions of Armenian separatist groups
in Karabakh, who declared separation of this region from Azerbaijan.
The tasks of Armenian agressors in the conflict, carried out by force,
are the following: alteration of existing borders, occupation and
subsequent annexation of Karabakh and adjacent Azeri territories.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The first clashes between Armenians and Azeris took place in February
of 1988, when Armenian separatists demanded eviction of Azeris from
just the very Azeri villages and when leaders of Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) attempted to separate this province from
Azerbaijan and join Armenia. In a number of regions these clashes
turned into large-scale civil disorders, resulting by death of many
innocent Azeris. In late November of 1988 military detachments of
Armenian Republic conducted the first in this conflict and the forth
in the 20th century large-scale ethnic cleansing deporting over
200,000 Azeris (including women, children, the old) from the places of
compact living of Azeris in Armenia.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Incompetent actions of Moscow and the general crisis of USSR persuaded
the leaders of separatist movement in NKAO and nationalistic
organizations of Armenia in possibility and necessity to carry out the
plan of forceful separation of Karabakh from Azerbaijan. And the
ultimate goal was ousting the Azeri population from Karabakh, forming
a new ethnic situation, and subsequent annexation of Karabakh by
Armenia. Since 1988 all political activities of Armenia in all
regional and international levels were aimed to realization of these
goals. After Armenia actually escaped the control of Moscow, they
managed to shift a number of industrial plants to production of
primitive models of weapons. These arms and ammunition were secretly
transferred to Karabakh; secret military formations of Armenian
Republic tried to occupy other territories of Azerbaijan.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The aggressive policy of Armenian Republic resulted by occupation of
over 20% of Azerbaijani territory. 120,000 people perished, over
250,000 wounded, 4,000 POWs or missing without trace. Over 1,100,000
Azeris left their homes and became refugees. The material damage, made
by Armenian forces, is estimated for $60 billions. During the
aggression 10 towns (Khankendi, Shusha, Lachin, Kelbejar, Agdam,
Fizuli, Gubadli, Zangilan, Jabrayil, Agdere), 876 villages, 113,000
houses, 191 hospitals, 693 schools, 700 public building, 160 bridges
were destroyed; 5,446 children became orphans. 800 km of roads, 2,300
km of water pipelines was destroyed. Nevertheless this is the JUST WAR
for Azerbaijan.

By Ismayil Abdulazimov



+++++++++++++++++






http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/khojaly_tragedy.html


KHOJALY TRAGEDY

Massacre of Khojaly

One of the most heinous crimes against the Azerbaijani people was
the massacre of hundreds of defenseless inhabitants of the town of
Khojaly, in the Nagorno Karabakh region of the Azerbaijan, which was
taken by armenian troops on the night of February 25-26, 1992 in what
was described by the Human Rights Watch as "the largest massacre to
date in the conflict".

Khojaly is an Azerbaijani town strategically located on the Agdam
– Shusha and Hankendi (Stepanakert) – Askeran roads in
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. The town' population was over
7,000 people.

The Armenian armed forces and mercenary units spared virtually none of
those who had been unable to flee Khojaly and the surrounding area. In
the words of the journalist Chingiz Mustafaev, among the dead were
"... dozens upon dozens of children between 2 and 15 years old, women
and old people, in most cases shot at point-blank range in the head.
The position of the bodies indicated that the people had been killed
in cold blood, calculatedly, without any sign of a struggle or of
having tried to escape.

Some had been taken aside and shot separately; many had been
killed as entire families at once. Some corpses displayed several
wounds, one of which was invariably in the head, suggesting that the
wounded were executed. Some children were found with severed ears; the
skin had been cut from the left side of an elderly woman's face; and
men had been scalped. There were corpses that had clearly been robbed.
The first time we arrived at the scene of the shootings of February
28, accompanied by two military helicopters, we saw from the air an
open area about one kilometer across which was full with corpses
almost everywhere..."


***
An inhabitant of Khojaly, Djanan Orudjev, also provided
information on the many victims, mostly women and children. His
16-year-old son was shot, and his 23-year-old daughter with her twin
children and another 18-year-old daughter who was pregnant, were taken
hostage. Sana Talybova, who witnessed the tragedy as it unfolded,
watched as four Meskheti Turks, refugees from Central Asia, and three
Azerbaijanis were beheaded near the grave of an Armenian soldier;
children were tortured and killed in front of their parents; and two
Azerbaijanis had their eyes taken out with screwdrivers. The organized
nature of the extermination of the population of Khojaly was evident
from the killing, in previously prepared ambushes, of peaceful
inhabitants who fled the town in desperation to save their lives. For
example, Elman Mamedov, chief of administration in Khojaly, reported
that a large group of people who had left Khojaly came under intensive
fire from Armenian positions near the village of Nakhichevanik.
Another resident of Khojaly, Sanubar Alekperova, reported numbers of
corpses of women, children and old people near Nakhichevanik, where
they fell into an ambush. Her mother and her two daughters, Sevinzh
and Khidzhran, were killed and she herself was wounded. Faced with
this mass shooting, some of the group made for the village of
Gyulably, but there Armenians took some 200 people hostage. Among them
was Dzhamil Mamedov; the Armenians tore out his nails, beat him and
took away his grandson. His wife and daughter vanished without trace.



***

"I had heard a lot about wars, about the cruelly of the Fascists,
but the Armenians were worse, killing five and six-year-old children,
killing innocent civilians", said a French journalist, Jean-Yves
Junet, who visited the scene of this mass murder of women, old people,
children and defenders of Khojaly.

«Khojaly - The Last Day»,
Baku, Azrbaijan publishers, 1992.


***


The report of Memorial, a Moscow-based human rights group, on the
massive violations of human rights committed during the massacre of
Khojaly, says of the civilians flee in the town: "Efell into ambushes
set by the Armenians and came under fire. Some of them nonetheless
managed to gel into Agdam; others, mostly women and children, froze to
death while lost in the mountains; others still, according to
testimony from those who reached Agdam, were taken prisoner near the
villages of Pirdzhamal and Nakhichevanik. There is evidence from
inhabitants of Khojaly, who have already been exchanged, thai some of
the prisoners were shot ... Around 200 bodies were brought into Agdam
in this space of four days. Scores of the corpses bore traces of
profanation. Doctors on a hospital train in Agdam noted no less than
Four corpses that had been scalped and one that had been beheaded.
State forensic examinations were carried in Agdam on 181 corpses (130
male and 51 female, including 13 children); the findings were that 151
people had died from gunshot wounds. 20 from shrapnel wounds and 10
from blows inflicted with a blunt instrument... The records of the
hospital train in Agdam, through which almost all the injured
inhabitants or defenders of Khojaly passed, refer to 598 cases of
wounds or frostbite E and one case of live scalping." ("A tragedy
whose perpetrators cannot be vindicated. A report by Memorial, the
Moscow-based human rights group, on the massive violations of human
rights committed in the taking of Khojaly on the night of February
25-26, 1992 by armed units.)

«Svoboda» newspaper,
June 12, 1992.

***
The massacre of Khojaly set a pattern of destruction and ethnic
cleansing methodically carried out by the Armenian armed forces. On
November 29, 1993, Newsweek quoted a senior US Government official as
saying: "What we see now is a systematic destruction of every
village in their way. It's vandalism."
Every year religious leaders of Azerbaijan; Christian, Jewish and
Muslim communities issue appeals on the eve of commemoration of the
massacre of Khojaly. This year four leaders of Ashkenazi and Sephardic
Jewish communities, the Orthodox Bishop of Baku and Caspian region,
and the Spiritual Leader of Caucasus Muslims urged the international
community to condemn the February 26, 1992 bloodshed and facilitate
liberation of the occupied territories.
Religious leaders of Azerbaijan diverse communities stated their
rejection of extremism and policy of ethnic cleansing conducted by
Armenia. They see the future of Azerbaijan as beine a democratic
secular society based on humanistic values.



++++++++++++++++++++++



Pictures:

http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/pictures_of_azerbaijan_massacre.html
Yiannis
2004-08-30 20:03:47 UTC
Permalink
Post by mark rivers
First of all it is Ankara, not Angora, ignorant asshole.
You arrogant turk!

It was founded as Angyra thousands of years before the first Turk ever
set foot on Anatolian soil. Angyra (ankara), Smyrna (izmir), Kesaria
(kaiseri), IsTinPolin (istambul); all these were Greek cities, when
your ancestors were still busy trying to figure how to light a fire.
So if you expect us to change our language of millenia for your
benefit Turk, you wait in vain. You and yours will eventually be
forgotten by History, as have others before you. We keep these names
still and remember them. And one day, you will be no more. And Greek
will once again be heard in Smyrni in Ikonio and in Kesaria. No one
then will remember the barbarians who held them for a few houndred
years, and then were gone. And who had the gall to expect us to change
our language for their benefit.


&#928;&#940;&#955;&#953; &#956;&#949;
&#967;&#961;&#972;&#957;&#953;&#945; &#956;&#949;
&#954;&#945;&#953;&#961;&#959;&#973;&#962;
&#928;&#940;&#955;&#953; &#948;&#953;&#954;&#940; &#956;&#945;&#962;
&#952;&#945;'&#957;&#945;&#953;
Ali Asker
2004-08-30 21:04:46 UTC
Permalink
Your bull shit posts are ignored many civilised poeple!!! You are know
talking to yourselves nobady else!!!

Keep your brutality against the Kurdish people, show your barbaric
face again so that you could be dismantled forcabily by the civilised
world!!! Turkey is not a place to live by any individuals even the
Turks %80 of them would like to leave their land and move to civilised
world!!!
Post by mark rivers
Post by Yiannis
Post by Ali Asker
'Iraq Will never Find Peace Unless We get our Rights'
More veiled threats from Angora.SO what else is new?
"Veiled threats from Angora" ?????
First of all it is Ankara, not Angora, ignorant asshole.
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh1.htm
History of the Nagorno-Karabakh Region of the Republic of Azerbaijan
The history of Karabakh is rooted in antiquity, and it is one of the
historic provinces of Azerbaijan, an important political, cultural,
and spiritual center.
Territorial claims of the Armenians against the Azerbaijani people and
Azerbaijan are the main reasons for the so-called "Karabakh problem".
Karabakh (Arsakh) was inalienable part to all the state formations
that have existed on the territory of northern Azerbaijan.
From 4th century B.C. to 8th century A.D. the territory of the current
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan was one of the provinces of
Caucasian Albania, the most ancient state of Northern Azerbaijan.
After the fall of the independent Albanian state, Arsakh being
inseparable from Azerbaijan both geographically and politically, was a
part to the Azerbaijani state of Sajids, in 10th century - to the
state of Salarids, and in 11-12th centuries - to the state of
Sheddadids. During 12-13th centuries Karabakh constituted part of the
Atabey-Ildenizids state, in the second half of 13th century -
beginning of 15th century, during the existence of the Mongolian
Khulagouid state - part of the Jalairids' state. In the 15th century
it existed within the states of Gharagouynlou and Aghgouynlou, and
during 16th and 17th centuries Karabakh, as a part of the Karabakh
beylerbeyyat (duchy), was within the Sefevi state. The latter
consisted of 4 beylerbeyyats: Shirvani, Karabakhi (also known as
Ganja), Chukhursaadi (or Erivan) and Azerbaijani (or Tebriz).
Karabakh, being a part of the Karabakhi beylerbeyyat, was ruled by the
representatives of the Turkic Zyiad-oglu tribe, subordinated to Kajars
from 16th till 19th century. In the second half of the 18th century
Karabakh belonged to the Karabakh khanate (principality) and along
with the latter was incorporated into Russia.
Thus, Karabakh has never been a part of the Armenian state, which was
established in Asia, far from South Caucasus.
In the antiquity the population of Karabakh consisted of Albans, and
in the early medieval period - of Albans and Turkic-speaking tribes of
Barsil, Savir, Hunn, Khazar, which lived on this territory. These
tribes were joined by other Turkic-speaking tribes, in particular,
Roumlou, Shoumlou, Bakharlou, Kangary and etc. Language of the Albans
belonged to northeastern-Caucasian family. As it has been established
as a result of most recent research, tribes of that family have
inhabited the territory, at least, since the mesolithic period, no
less than ten thousand years ago.
Arabic conquest of the lowlands of Albania, as well as valleys of Kura
and Araz in 7th century, resulted in islamization of the population of
the plains and it merging with the Turkic-speaking population of the
country. However, Albanian population, ruled by Albanian Mikhranid
princes, remained in the mountainous Arsakh along with the Turkic
tribes. Descendants of the Mikhranid clan restored the Albanian
kingdom in Arsakh in the 9th century. This kingdom was ruled by the
Jalalids, descendants of Hassan-Jalal, until 15th century.
General appearance of Gandzasar cloister, center of Alban church
After losing political and secular power in the 15th century,
representatives of the clan of Jalal became the spiritual leaders of
the country. They became Patriarch-Catolicos of the Albanian
autonomous church, until 1836, when independence of the Albanian
church was abolished and subordinated to the Armenian church as a
result of intrigues of the Armenian clergy.
In the 15th century the Jalalids were granted the title of Melik
(count) by Jahanshah. After that the clan broke up and five melikates
(smaller autonomous county) appeared in Karabakh: Goulistan, Jraberd,
Khachen, Varanda and Dizak. The title of Melik was conferred upon the
ruling families of the Melikates. Meliks of Karabakh in their letters
to the Russian czar call themselves "descendants of the Albanian
Arshakids". The Albanian princes had a title of melik, differing from
Armenian titles: ishkhan, tar etc. None of the Albanian Melik families
was of Armenian descent.
Thus, the historical Albanian province of Arsakh until 19th century
had been an important political, cultural, spiritual center of the
remaining Albanian Christian population which managed to preserve its
territorial, political, confessional unity and, importantly, - its
Albanian self-conscience.
Appearance of the first ethnic Armenian on the territory of
Azerbaijan, in particular, in Karabakh, should be viewed through the
prism of the Armenian people's history.
As it is known, Armenians are not aboriginal neither in the territory
of Asia Minor (historical Turkey), nor in the Caucasus. According to
Armenologists, the Armenians, who belonged to the Frigian tribes,
originally inhabiting the Balkans, following the Cimmerian
resettlement appeared in Asia Minor in the 7th century B.C. They have
further spread to the east, reaching Euphrates. The latest edition of
"The history of the Armenian people" states that in the 12th century
B.C. groups of Hindo-European Armenian-speaking tribes penetrated
territories of the Khurrites and Louvian Khetts in the upper reaches
of the Euphrates. These tribes were called as "moushku" and "urumu" by
Assirian cuneiform texts, "arims" by the Greek sources, and later
"Armenians".
The first Armenian state, established in Asia Minor in the 6th century
B.C., lasted until 428 and was only nominally a state being de-facto a
province of the Persian and Roman Empires. Attempts to restore the
Armenian kingdom were made in 9th-11th centuries and in 12th-14th
centuries. Thus, in 9th-11th centuries Armenian Bagratid state, with
the capital of Ani, was established in the vicinity of Kars and
Erzurum. Later, in 12th-14th centuries, an Armenian Kilikian kingdom
was founded in a totally different location on the northeastern shore
of the Mediterranean.
Since the 15th century the Armenian history is closely linked to the
Armenian church. Significance and influence of the church have
especially grown after the Catolicos' seat was moved in 1441 from
Kilikia to Echmiadzin, in the vicinity of Yerevan. Since that time
Echmiadzin assumed both political and general leadership in the life
of the Armenians. It became the consolidating and organizing force of
the Armenian people scattered across many countries.
Thus, Azerbaijani regions of Arsakh and Sounik, partly populated by
Christian Albans, had preserved confessional unity with Armenians
while maintaining territorial and political unity with Azerbaijan.
With the emergence of the Ottoman Empire Armenians lost hope to create
their state in Asia Minor. This is when the Armenians turned to the
Caucasus and historical Azerbaijan with the idea of forcing
Azerbaijanis out of the Caucasus. Authors of "The history of the
Armenian people" introduce into scientific circles the term "Eastern
Armenia", by which they from 16th to 20th century mean exclusively
Azerbaijani lands: Karabakh, Erevan, Ganja, Sounik-Zangezur. Thus,
"Eastern Armenia" shifts both in time and space from east of the
Euphrates to the Caucasus.
Beginning from the 18th century the Armenians penetrating Russia were
trying to gain favor of the Russian court, first - of the Emperor Paul
I, then - Empress Catherine II by all means. Attracting them by the
necessity of liberating the so-called "Eastern Armenia" from Turkish
and Persian "yoke", Armenians practically aimed at cleansing Karabakh
and the lands of Zangezur from Azerbaijanis, who co-existed with the
fragments of Albanian Christians. Another goal was the Russian
conquest of these territories. Undoubtedly, Armenian intended, by
separating these lands from Azerbaijan and joining them with Russia,
to continue presenting them as "Eastern Armenia", this time within
Russia. In 1805 by peace negotiations Azerbaijani khanates of Karabakh
(founded by Azerbaijani Panakh Ali-khan, fortress of Shusha which he
erected to make the capital of the khanate, was called Panakhabad),
Sheki and Shirvan were forced to accept the Russian rule. During the
period of 1806-1813 through embittered wars and campaigns by
Tsitsianov, Goudovich and general Kotlyarovsky the rest of the
Azerbaijani khanates - principalities of Talysh, Baki, Gouba, Ganja,
Derbent were conquered. Later, in 1826, Russia annexed the khanates of
Nakhchivan and Yerevan, populated mostly by Turkic Azerbaijanis.
According to official documents, Kharabakh khanate had 90,000
residents, one town and more than 600 villages, only 150 of them were
Armenian. There were 1048 Azerbaijani and 474 Armenian resident
families in Shusha. In villages: 12,902 and 4,331 accordingly.
However, already by the end of the 19th century Nagorny Karabakh had
Armenian majority of 58%, while Azerbaijanis constituted 42% of
population. Influx of Armenian population in Azerbaijan, especially
into Karabakh, was significant during and after World War 1.
Increase of Armenian population in the Caucasus and concentration of
predominantly pro-Russian Christian Armenians in the areas bordering
Turkey and Persia was dictated by interests of Russia. In addition,
this way Russia won sympathies of Armenians in Turkey and secured
support in Asia Minor.
Memorial "Maraga - 150" mounted in 1978 on the occasion of 150
anniversary of arrival of Armenians from Persian region Maraga to
Karabakh. In 1988 as the Armenians in Nagorny Karabakh began
"realisation of right of the nation for self-determination"
inscription on the memorial "Maraga - 150" immediately disappeared
Both Turkmanchay and Adrianopol treaties included special clauses
allowing for migration of Armenians into the Caucasus, into the lands
of Azerbaijan and Georgia. This is when first compact Armenian
settlements appeared in Zangezur and Karabakh. In the years 1828-1830
alone 130,000 Armenians migrated. Following signing of Turkmanchay
treaty in 1828 Tsarist government created new, previously non-existent
political entity ? the Armenian oblast (district). This district
consisted of Azerbaijani lands of Erivan, Nakhchivan and Ordubad
districts and was governed by Czarist bureaucrats. This was the first
attempt to create an Armenian political entity on the territory of
Azerbaijan. In 1849 the Armenian district was abolished and Erivan
governorship created instead.
In 1836, in order to secure support of Armenians in Turkey and trying
to subordinate them to pro-Russian oriented Armenian Patriarchy in
Echmiadzin, Tzarist government made a number of concessions to the
Armenian Echmiadzin Church. These concessions included abolition the
Albanian Patriarchy, the independent Albanian church, and
subordination of it to the Armenian Gregorian church. Later, in
1909-1910, the Armenian Gregorian church with permission of the
Russian Sinod destroyed archives of the Albanian church and eliminated
samples of the Albanian literature. Russian historian V.L.Velichko
wrote that the Armenian clergy had used similar approach to Albanian
Christian shrines, the same way the Georgian monuments were treated.
After abolition of the Albanian Church Albans of Karabakh became
Gregorianized and some of the Albans of Karabakh migrated to the left
bank of the Kura river, preserved their identity and still live in the
Azerbaijani village of Nij.
The issue of so-called "Western Armenia" is related to the situation
of Turkey's Armenian population and following 1878 talks held in
Berlin and San-Stefano became "the Armenian question", which implied
Turkey undertaking introduce reforms in the Armenian-populated
vilayets (regions). In reality, only Tzarist Russia was pushing for
realization "the Armenian question". Two political parties, "GNCHAK"
(1887) and "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" (1890) were created for that purpose.
These parties developed ideological justification for Armenian
territorial claims in the Caucasus. "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" used terrorism
and armed rebellion to achieve its goal of unifying territories with
Armenian migrant population from Iran and Turkey. "DASHNAKTSUTYUN"
party frequently changed its orientation from pro-Russian to
pro-European and then from supporting Turkish revolutionary movement
back to supporting Russia.
During the Balkan war of 1912-1914 Russia proposed creation of an
autonomous Armenian district in Turkey, so-called "Western Armenia"
from vilayets of Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbakir, Harput, Sivas. This
proposal was not supported by the European states. The Armenian
political parties mentioned above and authorities of the Russian
Empire in an attempt to contain national-liberation movement in the
Caucasus provoked first clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. As
a result, between 1907 and 1912 about 500,000 Armenians from Iran and
Turkey migrated into Kars, Erivan and Yelizavetpol districts, most of
population of which were Azerbaijanis. This took place with assistance
of Russian authorities in order to make inter-ethnic situation even
more tense and strengthen Russia's dominance in the region.
February and October Revolutions of 1917 marked a new stage in "the
Armenian question". In October 1917 Armenian Congress convened in
Tiflis and demanded Russian annexation of East Turkey's territory
occupied by the Russian Army during WW1. On December, 31 the Council
of Commissars adopted a decree signed by Lenin and Stalin on free
self-determination of "Turkish Armenia".
Following collapse of the Transcaucasus Parliament the Azerbaijan
Democratic Republic (ADR), the first democratic state in the Muslim
world, was established on May, 28 1918. One of the first steps of the
ADR's government was to yield on May, 29 1918 town of Erivan (Yerevan)
to Republic of Armenia, which had declared independence but had no
political center. Territory of Armenian Republic was limited to Erivan
and Echmiadzin districts with 400,000 residents. Later, all means were
employed to implement policies aimed at changing demography of Erivan
and Zangezur in favor of Armenians.
Azerbaijan's foreign policy objectives at that period included
developing friendly and neighborly relationship with Armenia.
Unfortunately, "DASHNAKTSUTYUN" government of Armenia had expansionist
plans and laid claims on Nakhichevan, Zangezur and Karabakh, all of
which were parts of Azerbaijan. This led to the war between Armenia
and Azerbaijan in 1918-1920. According to available data, during
summer of 1918 alone 115 Azerbaijani villages were destroyed, 7,000
people killed and 50,000 Azerbaijanis left Zangezur.
US President Wilson accepted instructions from the League of Nations,
which stated that Armenia "cannot exist without support" and that its
borders must be defined. However, the Senate decided that "the
Armenian question" is a European issue and rejected the "mandate on
Armenia".
The French Government acted similarly towards Armenians regarding
Kilikia, which had been occupied by France in 1919. In 1921 France
concluded peace treaty with Turkey, and gave up Kilikia.
Thus, the Armenian issue concentrated in the South Caucasus. In March
- July 1920 clashes with Dashnak forces took place in Karabakh,
especially in Shusha, Nakhchivan, Ordoubad. Hostilities took place in
Khankendy, Terter, Askeran, Zangezur, Jebrail, Nakhchivan, Ganja, and
dozens of Azerbaijani villages were destroyed.
Independence of Azerbaijan was crushed after the Bolshevik 11th Red
Army had invaded the country and the Soviet Socialist Republic of
Azerbaijan was proclaimed on April 28, 1920. Soviet Russia decided not
to allow turning Armenian Republic into anti-Russian bridgehead. It
became a mediator in settling the border disputes between Armenia and
Azerbaijan. In July 1920 Dashnak government in Erivan gave a secret
order to the Dashnak military forces to begin guerilla punitive
activities in Karabakh, Nakhchivan, and Zangezur. The same summer the
Bolsheviks have crushed the Dashnak troops that had invaded Karabakh,
and established Soviet rule here. Later, in November 1920, the Dashnak
regime was overthrown in Armenia.
The letter written in 1920 by chairman of the Revolutionary Committee
of Azerbaijan N.Narimanov, member of the Caucasus regional committee
of the Communist Party B.Mdivani, member the Central Committee of the
Communist Party (CCCP) of Azerbaijan A.Mikoyan and member of the CCCP
of Armenia A.Nourijanian, the people's commissary (minister) of
foreign affairs G.Chicherin and G.Orjonikidze stated: "As far as
supposedly disputed territories of Zangezur and Karabakh, that have
already joined Soviet Azerbaijan, are concerned, we categorically
state, that there can be no dispute about these places and they must
stay within Azerbaijan. The regions of Djulfa and Nakhchivan are
populated solely by Moslems... and must join with Azerbaijan".
G.Orjonikidze, who in his telegrams to V.Lenin, I.Stalin, G.Chicherin
has been underlining economic bent of Karabakh and Zangezur for Baku
and Azerbaijan, was of the same opinion. I.A.Mikoyan said that "agents
of the Armenian government, the Dashnaks, are striving for joining
Karabakh with Armenia, but for the population of Karabakh it would
mean to be deprived of their life-line, which is Baku, and to be
connected to Erivan, with which it hasn't ever been linked in any way.
"
Responding to the territorial claims of the Armenian SSR the Caucasus
bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party at its
meeting dated July 5, 1921 decided: "Proceeding from the necessity to
maintain ethnic peace between Moslems and Armenians, economic ties
between Highland and Lowland Karabakh, its uninterrupted ties with
Azerbaijan, Nagorny Karabakh is to be left within (underlined by the
edit.) the Azerbaijan SSR and to be granted broad regional autonomy
with the administrative center in Shusha, which is a part of the
autonomous region." Establishment of the autonomous region was not
artificial, though it contradicted historic right of Azerbaijan for
its own lands. It was a result of complicated situation in Nagorny
Karabakh and around it.
In 1922 the Azerbaijan SSR was included into the USSR. Within the
latter the attributes of republics' independence were a formality. On
July 7, 1923 the Central Executive Committee of Azerbaijan issued a
decree "On the establishment of Nagorno-Karabakh autonomous region".
Thus, the government of the Azerbaijan SSR by the act of law created
an autonomy on the territory of Azerbaijan in the interests of its
Armenian citizens. At the same time, three hundred thousands of
Azerbaijanis who have lived in compact settlements in Armenia were
refused even cultural autonomy by the governments of both the USSR and
the Armenian SSR. That violated their rights and had eventually led to
multiple deportations in 1948-1950 and to more than one dramatic
forced resettlement from Armenia, including more than 200, 000 in
1988-1989 alone.
It is necessary to emphasize that after the establishment of Soviet
rule all over the South Caucasus in 1921, the territories that had
been captured and separated from the Republic of Azerbaijan weren't
claimed by the government of the Azerbaijan SSR. On the contrary, the
next, "peaceful" stage of separation started with the assistance of
communist leadership of Russia and the Soviet Union. In 1921
"acquisition" of the province of Zangezur by Armenia was legalized,
which led to complete isolation of Nakhchivan from Azerbaijan. In 1922
the Bolsheviks dealt with Azerbaijani territories of Dilijan and
Geycha in a similar manner. In 1929 several villages were separated
from Nakhchivan and transferred to Armenian SSR. In 1969 the Armenian
SSR again extended its territory by acquiring Azerbaijani lands, this
time - in the Kedabey district. In 1984 under the pressure from
central authorities, as it had been in the previous years, Azerbaijan
handed a number of villages in the district of Gazakh to Armenia.
Taking into account the above, it's crucially important to underline
that as of January 1, 1920 the territory of the Democratic Republic of
Azerbaijan was 113,900 square km. Now the territory of the Republic of
Azerbaijan is 86,600 square km. According to the population census of
1989, the population of the Autonomous Region of Nagorny Karabakh
(ARNK) was 186,100. 138,600 of them were Armenians (73,5%) and 47,500
Azerbaijanis (25,3%).
The new stage of the Armenian-Azerbaijan confrontation at the end of
the 1980s was caused not by the far-fetched suppositions about
"discrimination of the Armenian minority" in Azerbaijan and economic
hardships, but by the beginning of implementation of long-conceived
plans of expansion. The most favorable conditions for that were
created in the period of collapse. Beginning in February 1988,
Armenia, with the connivance of the leadership of the USSR, instigated
anti-constitutional activities by the administrative structures of the
ARNK. Those steps became the prologue of the wide-scale armed
aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan.
++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh2.htm
The process of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict
(information)
Chronology of the conflict from 1988 up to present days.
History of the second Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict throughout the
20th century takes its beginning from February, 1988, when the session
of the Council of Oblast (local legislature) of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
adopted decision to secede from Azerbaijan and to unite with Armenia.
Not a confessional and ethnic factors are the basis of the conflict
which started as local clashes and turned into one of the most
long-standing and bloody conflicts in post-war Europe. Its roots are
in the expansionism and policy of territorial aggression aimed at the
expansion of the territory of a state by means of the armed abruption
and forceful seizure of a part of the territory of another sovereign
state, which is a member of the UN, OSCE and other international
organisations.
A prologue of a full-scale armed aggression against Azerbaijan became
anti-constitutional actions by separatist groups in the
Nagorno-Karabakh region, supported by and controlled from outside
completely contradicting International Law and the Soviet legislation
in vigour that time.
Having begun with organising of the illegal meetings, strikes and
actions of disobediences, the Republic of Armenia started to establish
the unconstitutional power institutions in the Nagorno-Karabakh region
of Azerbaijan. The military formations as well as a huge amount of
weapons and ammunitions were shipped on the territory of Azerbaijan. A
military bridgehead was set up to conduct an armed aggression against
Azerbaijan.
Full-scale hostilities in the zone of the Armenian-Azerbaijani
conflict triggered at the end of 1991 - early 1992. Armenian armed
formations, using the most modern weapon systems, deployed combat
operations in the Nagorno-Karabakh region, culmination of which became
a seizure of the city of Khodjali in February, 1992 resulted in nearly
800 peaceful inhabitants, including the olds, women and children,
brutally killed, and occupation of the Shusha rayon in May, 1992.
Thereupon, armed actions were beyond the administrative boundaries of
the region and expanded to the rest of Azerbaijan and the
Armenia-Azerbaijani border, including its Nakhchivan zone. Pending the
period from May, 1992 until May, 1994 6 more rayons of Azerbaijan were
occupied.
Thus, as a result of aggression against the Republic of Azerbaijan,
more than 17.000 km2 were occupied that constitute about 20% of the
whole territory of the Azerbaijan Republic, more than 18 000 persons
were killed, over 50 000 are wounded or invalidated, more than 877
settlements, 100 thousand dwellings, more 1 thousand economic objects,
more than 600 schools, 250 medical institutions looted or ruined.
Internally displaced persons exceeded 800 000 persons and plus nearly
200 000 refugees from Armenia representing disastrous figures for the
country with 8 mln. population.
Humanitarian situation. As a result of ethnic cleansing, a dramatic
humanitarian situation in Azerbaijan produced. The most of refugees
and IDPs were accommodated in the tent camps, schools and student's
hostels. In spite of undertaking efforts, they constantly threaten to
perish with chill and epidemics due to the insufficient level of
shelter and sanitary living conditions. The problem is aggravated by
the presence of children and the olds. Although the total humanitarian
aid sent to Azerbaijan in 1997 has formed 60 mln. US dollars, for a
present day that falls short of a minimum need of the people affected
by the conflict.
Arms supply to Armenia. Illegal supplies of the Russian weapon to
Armenia from 1994 to 1996, including 84 tanks T-72, 50 ACVs, 32
operative-tactical missiles R-17 with range of up to 300 km, capable
to carry nuclear warheads, and other arms worth of 1 billion US
dollars, as well as the resent supply by Russia to Armenia of upgraded
aircrafts MiG-29 and anti-aircraft systems S-300 worth of 2 billion US
dollars, cause a particular concern of Azerbaijan. These supplies
violate norms of International Law, principles of the peaceful
settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict, upset military
political balance in the region and threaten the security of all
states of the region. Such illegal actions are in the contradiction
with the UN Security Councils Resolution 853, Statement of Chairman of
Security Council as of August 18 1993, and decision of a OSCE
Committee of Senior Officials as of 28 February and March, 14 1992,
which require to cancel a military supplies to the states, involved to
the conflict, as promoting the escalation of the conflict and
continuation of the occupation of the Azerbaijani territories.
Illegal supplies are also in the direct contradiction with provisions
of CFE Agreement.
Agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Armenia
on the friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance. Signed on
August 29, 1997. Practically, it constitutes a military alliance
between two states. A signing of such Agreement testifies that, on the
one hand, the Republic of Armenia is not going to solve the
Armenian-Azerbaijani armed conflict by the political means, but sees a
further development of situation in the region as a continuation of
armed confrontations with the Azerbaijan Republic, and on the another
hand, Russian Federation falls short with its obligations as a state
of Co-Chairman of the OSCE Minsk Conference.
Azerbaijan considers this Agreement as a factor that aggravates, in a
considerable extent, tense situation in the armed conflict, and
weakens hopes of region's peoples for the peaceful settlement of the
Armenian-Azerbaijan conflict, normalisation of relations between the
Azerbaijan Republic and the Republic of Armenia and establishment of
peace and security in the region.
It is already 4,5 years as cease-fire regime, reached on May 12, 1994,
has been operating. However, recently, a provocative activity of the
Armenian armed units, deployed along the Line of Contact, gains more
impudent nature and pursues a purpose to compel Azerbaijan to drop
into the new turn of combat actions. It is worthwhile to note that an
Armenian party broke an Agreement on cease-fire regime 1271 times
since it was reached on May, 1994, up to May, 1998. Altogether, for
this period of time 188 persons were killed, 366 wounded.
The liberation of prisoners of war (POW). Activities with the
mediation ICRC on the liberation POWs and hostages are continuing.
From 1993 up to May, 1998, there were exchanges between parties, as a
result of which 357 persons were liberated - 102 Armenians and 255
Azerbaijanis. However, according to the Ministry of National Security
of the Republic of Azerbaijan, more than 800 Azerbaijanis are
remaining in Armenia and the Nagorno-Karabakh region.
On November 23-26, 1998 during a visit of OSCE Chairman-in-Office
Bronislav Geremek to the region as action for strengthening of
confidence the agreement on exchange of all POWs was reached between
the Parties.
Chronology of the negotiation process. International mediation on the
settlement of the conflict takes its beginning from February, 1992,
within the framework of so called OSCE Minsk process, which is the
only forum on the elaboration of comprehensive model of settlement of
the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict.
Minsk Group - a forum on preparation of Minsk conference- was
established aiming at political settlement of this issue, which
comprises Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, USA, France, Poland, Germany,
Turkey, Belarus, Finland, Sweden, Italy.
After the beginning of hostilities and seizure of Azerbaijani cities,
UN Security Council adopted Resolutions 822, 853, 874, 884, that
stipulate immediate and unconditional withdrawal of the Armenian armed
formations from the territory of Azerbaijan and returning of refugees
and internally displaced persons to their homes.
Main landmarks in the negotiating process have become the Helsinki
Additional meeting CSCE Council on March 24, 1992, the OSCE Budapest
and Lisbon Summits.
In accordance with decision of the OSCE Budapest Summit, 1994, the
institute of Co-Chairmen of the Minsk conference was created, which
were entrusted "to conduct speedy negotiations for the conclusion of a
political agreement on the cessation of the armed conflict ("Big
Political Agreement"), the implementation of which will eliminate
major consequences of the armed conflict for all parties and permit
the convening of the Minsk Conference".
Thereby, as a result of the Budapest Summit, the legal two-stage
1) First stage - elimination of the consequences of the armed conflict
by the implementation of the Agreement, which means a full liberation
of all occupied territories and ensuring a return of IDPs to their
homes;
2) Second stage - elaboration and adoption of a comprehensive peace
settlement at the Minsk conference.
There was also a decision agreed upon at the Budapest Summit to
establish the OSCE peacekeeping operation after the conclusion of the
political Agreement. After Budapest, 17 rounds and many consultations
with participants of the conflict were organised and conducted by the
Co-Chairmen (Russia-Finland).
During that time, 75% of the Agreement's draft and its Annexes were
agreed upon. Yet, a consent on the principal issues such as full
liberation of all territories, including Shusha and Lachin rayons,
security of parties to the conflict and withdrawal of units of armed
forces of Armenia from the territory of Azerbaijan has not been
achieved.
Three principles of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani
conflict were formulated in the Statement of the OSCE
- territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan
Republic;
- legal status of Nagorny Karabakh defined in an agreement based on
self-determination which confers on Nagorny Karabakh the highest
degree of self-rule within Azerbaijan;
- guaranteed security for Nagorny Karabakh and its whole population,
including mutual obligations to ensure kipping by all the Parties of
the provisions of the settlement.
These principles were supported by 53 the OSCE state-participants,
except Armenia.
Since November, 1996, Armenia unilaterally has broken direct
consultations between Advisers of Presidents of Armenia and
Azerbaijan.
After Lisbon Summit and establishing of an institute of the triple
Co-Chairmanship (Russia-France-USA), only one round of negotiations
(in April, 1997) was conducted, which ended without particular
results.
On June-September, 1997, the Co-Chairmanship elaborated and submitted
a new document for consideration of the Parties envisaging two-staged
On the first stage - a liberation of 6 rayons, occupied in the course
of the conflict that are outside of the former NKAO (except Lachin
rayon), return of civil population and restoration of the main
communications in the region of conflict.
On the second stage - a resolution of the situation around Lachin and
Shusha rayons and adoption of the main principles of the status of the
Nagorno-Karabakh region.
The final comprehensive settlement of the conflict, including an
Agreement on the status of self-rule of NK within Azerbaijan, will be
reached at the Minsk conference.
On October 1, 1997, Azerbaijan officially informed Co-Chairmanship on
its consent with the document as basis for the upcoming negotiations.
On October, 1997, in Strasbourg, the Presidents of Azerbaijan and
Armenia made a Joint Statement on readiness to resume negotiations on
the basis of Co-Chairmen's proposals.
On December, 1997, in Copenhagen, a Report of Co-Chairmen, emphasizing
a need to continue efforts on the settlement of conflict on the basis
of Lisbon principles and proposals of Co-Chairmanship, was distributed
at the OSCE Ministerial Council's meeting.
On May 13-17, 1998, during a visit of Co-Chairmen to the region,
Armenia officially stated about the recall of consent of former
President of Armenia with proposals on stage-by-stage settlement, and
spoke for a package settlement without preconditions.
On November 9, 1998, Co-Chairmen introduced new proposals on package
settlement of conflict based on a concept of "common state".
Azerbaijan from the very beginning during the consultations of
November 9 refused to accept these proposals, and on November 19 sent
written response to Co-Chairmen, officially informing the mediators on
unacceptability of proposals of November 9. Azerbaijan confirmed its
readiness to resume negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group on the
basis of Co-Chairmen's proposals of September 19, 1997.
On November 20, 1998, the Delegation of Azeri community of NK
officially rejected proposals of November 9, and on November, 25
Armenia and Armenians of NK have stated on acceptability for them of
the mentioned proposals.
On December 2-3, 1998, in the course of meeting of the OSCE Ministers
of Foreign Affairs in Oslo a special paragraph on the Minsk process
was included in to Chairman-in-Office's Summary, that consists an
appeal to the parties of the conflict to resume immediately the
negotiations in the framework of MG and to Co-Chairmen to continue
their efforts to promote negotiations and quest of resolution.
On April, 1999 during CIS summit in Moscow there was held meeting
between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia, where arrangement
about holding of further meetings for discussions of peace settlement
of Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict was reached. Opinion and positions
exchange between the parties was continued at the meetings between the
presidents in Washington on April, 24, in Geneva on August, 16 and 22
and in Yalta on September, 10. In the course of these meetings
arrangements for cease-fire strengthening and resumption of
negotiation process within the framework of OSCE Minsk Group were
reached.
++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh3.htm
CHRONOLOGY OF THE ARMENIAN -AZERBAIJANI CONFLICT (1988-1999)
- 1987 -
October - First meeting in Yerevan (Armenia) took place with
challenges to annex the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous region (NKAR) of
the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic to the Armenian Soviet
Socialist Republic (SSR).
- 1988 -
January 25 - Exodus of Azerbaijanis living in the Armenian SSR began.
February 22-23 - The first meetings in Baku and Sumgait took place
with a slogan: "NKAR is the integral part of Azerbaijan".
February 24 - For the first time, in the course of the
Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict blood was shed: in NKAR two Azerbaijanis
were killed.
February 27 - Strikes started in NKAR with the demand to be separated
from Azerbaijan.
February 28-29 - Pogroms and massive disorders in Sumgait took place.
There were people, among the organisers of pogroms, of Armenian
Nationality.
March 18 - Plenary Session of NKAR's regional Committee adopted a
decision on annexation of NKAR to Armenia.
March 24 - Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party and Council
of Ministers adopted a resolution "On measures for speeding up the
social-economic development of NKAR of the Azerbaijan SSR in
1988-1995".
The first decade of May - More than one thousand Azerbaijani refugees,
deported from Armenia, came to Azerbaijan.
May 18 - Meetings took place in Baku as a sign of protest against
ejection of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.
The first decade of June - Discrimination acts against Azerbaijanis in
NKAR broke out. In a few days about 2.000 people were ejected.
June 14 - According to State Committee on Statistics of Azerbaijan
four more thousand refugees fled to the Republic.
The last decade of June - Ejection of Azerbaijanis from Armenia is
going on.
July 12 - The Session of People's Deputies of the Regional Soviet in
NKAR adopted an anti-constitutional decision on separation from the
Azerbaijani SSR.
July 13 - Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
considered the decision of the session of the Regional Soviet from
July 12, 1988, as an illicit act.
July 18 - The enlarged meeting of the Presidium of the USSR's Supreme
Soviet endorsed NKAR as belonging to the Azerbaijani SSR.
September 3-21 - Series of terrorist acts against Azerbaijanis in
NKAR, setting out fire to houses and killing peaceful Azerbaijani
population in Stepanakert.
November 18 - December 5 - Meetings took place in Baku with the demand
to put an end to terrorist acts against Azerbaijanis in NKAR.
November 24 - The State of Emergency was announced in Baku,
Nakhchivan, Ganja.
November 27-29 - As a result of anti-Azerbaijani massacres 33
Azerbaijanis were killed in the cities of Gugark, Spitak and
Stepanavan of the Armenian SSR.
The second part of December - Exodus of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.
More than 105 thousand refugees fled to Azerbaijan from the Armenian
SSR.
- 1989 -
January 12 - In the territory of NKAR of Azerbaijan SSR a form of
ruling was applied: Committee of special ruling was set up.
May-June - The First Congress of the People's Deputies decided to form
a Commission of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on Nagorny Karabakh
July 7 - The Azerbaijani village of Karkijahan in NKAR was fired.
July 11 - The escalation of the situation in NKAR. An armed assault on
Azerbaijanis in Stepanakert. People were killed.
July 29 - The traffic of trains from Azerbaijan to Armenia was cut
short because of the attacks to the trains in the territory of
Armenia. The beginning of the blockade of Nakhchivan Autonomous
Republic of Azerbaijan by Armenia.
August 16 - There was the congress of the authoritative
representatives of Armenian population of NKAR in Stepanakert, those
refused to recognise the status of NKAR, as an autonomous region of
Azerbaijan.
August 27 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani
Republic declared as illegal the decision of the congress of
authoritative representatives of the Armenian population of NKAR from
August 16, 1989.
The last decade of September - Strikes of the Azerbaijani railroaders
in connection with the attacks to the trains in the territory of
Armenia.
The second decade of October - The beginning of the blockade of Shusha
region of NKAR, majority of the population of which is Azerbaijanis
(91,7%).
The second decade of November - Assaults on Azerbaijani trains in the
territory of the Armenian SSR, caused the stopping rail road traffic
between the Azerbaijani SSR and the Armenian SSR.
November 28 - The Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution "on
measures for normalising the situation in NKAR". It was decided to
form the republican organisational committee on NKAR and to restore
the activity of the regional council of the people's deputies, by
abolishing the Committee of special rule of NKAR.
December 1 - The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR passed an
anti-constitutional resolution "On reunification of the Armenian SSR
and Nagorny Karabakh".
The first and second decades of December - Number of attacks from the
territory of Armenia to the border villages of Azerbaijan were
registered. The Infantry brigands from the territory of Armenia were
landed in the regions of Khanlar and Shaumyan of Azerbaijan.
December 7 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani
SSR assessed this resolution of the Armenian Supreme Soviet from
December 1, 1989 as inadmissible interference in the affairs of the
Azerbaijani SSR, encroachment on its territorial integrity.
- 1990 -
January 9 - The session of the Armenian Supreme Soviet, considering
the issues of planning and budget for 1990, included in its sphere of
influence the plans of social-economic development of NKAR.
January 9 - Seizure of the Azerbaijani hostages by Armenians in the
region of Shaumyan of Azerbaijan SSR.
January 4-10 - An illegal supply of about 100 tanks, artillery and
anti-aircraft weapons by the Soviet Army to Armenia.
January 11 - The Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet condemned the decision of
the Armenian Supreme Soviet to include NKAR in its economic sphere and
assessed it as a grave violation of the sovereignty of the Azerbaijan
Republic.
January 13 - As a result of the armed attacks Armenians occupied the
village of Karki in Nakhchivan AR.
January 15 - An armed Armenian infantry were landed in the village of
Gushchu of Khanlar region.
January 19 - Armenians assaulted on the settlement of Sadarak in
Nakhchivan AR.
January 20 - The Soviet troops entered Baku, as a result 124 people
were killed, 737 people were wounded. The State of emergency was
declared in Baku and in other cities of Azerbaijan.
January 21 - The Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR demanded the
immediate withdrawal of the Soviet troops from Baku
February 13 - The Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR passed a
resolution "On admission as illegal the decision of the Caucasian
Bureau of the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party of July
5, 1921", which left NKAR as part of the Azerbaijani SSR.
March 6 - The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani SSR
passed a resolution "On inadmissibility of territorial claims by the
Armenian SSR".
March 7 - The Supreme Soviet of the USSR passed a resolution "On the
situation in the Azerbaijani SSR and Armenian SSR and on the measures
for normalising the situation in this region".
March 24 - The attack of the armed thugs of the Armenian SSR to the
villages of the Gazakh region of the Azerbaijani SSR. All civilians of
these villages were killed.
May 22 - The attempts to organise elections of the people's deputies
of the Armenian SSR in the territory of the NKAR failed.
May 25 - The resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR
"On anti-constitutional decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian
SSR and its Presidium concerning NKAR of the Azerbaijani SSR."
June 25 - Decree of the President of the USSR "On prohibition to form
armed forces which are not envisaged in the legislation of the USSR
and confiscation of illegally kept weapons".
June 29 - The Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijani SSR passed a
resolution "On resumption of sovereign rights of the Azerbaijani SSR
in NKAR and measures for social economical development of the region".
September 23 - The People's deputies of the USSR from Azerbaijan
appealed the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On forcible deportation of
the Azerbaijani population of Armenia".
- 1991 -
January-May - The Armenian thugs committed terrorist acts against the
leadership of the Committee of the special directorate of NKAR, the
armed attacks and firing of the Azerbaijani villages.
May 9 - The USSR Ministry of the Internal Affairs, KGB and Ministry of
Defence take measures for disarmament of the illegal Armenian armed
forces and confiscation of weapons in the districts near the border of
Azerbaijan and Armenia, as well as in NKAR of the Azerbaijani SSR.
June 29 - The Session of the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijani
Republic draws the attention of the USSR President and the Supreme
Soviet of the USSR to the new stage of escalation of Armenian thugs
groups attacks in NKAR, as well as passes a decision to mom up the
territory of NKAR from the thugs groups dispatched from Armenia and
finish the measures of the USSR presidential decree banning the
formation of armed forces.
September 2 - The Armenian separatists declared the establishment of
so called "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR)" in the territory of
Nagorny Karabakh region of the Azerbaijani Republic. All the armed
groups of about 15.000 were formed as "self-defence forces of NKR" and
subordinated to the Committee of Defence.
The middle of September - The Armenian armed forces began attacks the
western part of Goranboy district of Azerbaijan and occupied number of
inhabited settlements.
September 23 - Meeting of Presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in
Zheleznovodsk (Russia) mediated by the Russian and Kazakhstan
Presidents. There was reached an agreement on peaceful settlement of
the conflict.
October-November - The Armenian armed forces launched hostilities to
drive the Azerbaijani population out from the territories of Martuni
and Hadrut districts of the NKAR. The USSR air forces took part in the
hostilities supporting the Armenian forces. The Armenian forces
occupied about 30 settlements.
November 20 - Near the village of Garakend of the Khojavand district
of the Azerbaijan Republic the helicopter "MI-8" was shot down, in
which there was the peacemaking group of the Russian, Kazakhstan
representatives and the senior leadership of Azerbaijan. The murder of
22 people, including the state figures of the 3 countries put an end
the first attempt for peaceful settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani
conflict, undertaken in Zheleznovodsk and gave an impetus to the
escalation of violence in the region.
The middle of December - The forces of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs of the USSR were withdrawn from the territory of Nagorny
Karabakh. Illegal transfer of weapons to Armenia by the Ministry of
Internal Affairs of the USSR.
December 30 - The leaders of CIS countries called on Azerbaijan and
Armenia to resume the negotiation process.
- 1992 -
January - The armed forces of Armenia relying on the support of rifle
regiment 366 of the Russian armed forces, launched the occupation of
the last Azerbaijani settlements of Karabakh which were in a complete
isolation.
January 30-31 - The second meeting of the Council of CSCE (Prague).
Azerbaijan and Armenia got the membership of CSCE. It was decided to
send a mission of rapporteurs to the region of conflict.
The first half of February - Occupation of the suburb of Stepanakert
(Karkijahan), as well as the Azerbaijani settlements along the road of
Shusha-Khojaly and around Shusha.
February 12-18 - First visit of the CSCE mission of rapporteur to the
region.
February 25-26 - Assault and seizure of the city of Khojaly
(Nagorno-Karabakh region, Azerbaijan) by military forces of Armenia
and with the participation of 366 Infantry regiment of the Russian
military forces, as a result 800 civilians were brutally killed.
The end of February - Evacuation of the staff of the 366 Infantry
regiment of the Russian military forces from Stepanakert and illegal
transfer of 25 tanks, 87 armoured infantry fighting vehicles, 28
armoured vehicles, 45 artillery mortar systems to Armenians.
March 24 - Additional Helsinki meeting of the CSCE Council, decision
to convene a conference on Nagorny Karabakh under the aegis of the
CSCE. Chairman-in-Office designated Mr. Rafaelli as a Chairman of the
Minsk Conference.
April - Beginning of the activity of Russia as mediator.
May 7 - Meeting of the Heads of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Tehran
through the mediation of Iran (meeting was devoted to the
normalisation of the situation in Nagorny Karabakh and to the peaceful
settlement of the conflict).
May 8 - Military Forces of the Russian Army occupied azerbaijani city
Shusha and Shusha region (Nagorny Karabakh) that led to the breakdown
of agreements reached in Tehran. As the result of the occupation of
Shusha region 23156 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent
residences. Thus, there was finished ethnic cleansing in Nagorny
Karabakh.
May 18-19 - Military forces of the Republic of Armenia occupied Lachin
region, which was outside Nagorny Karabakh. As the result of this
occupation 63341 Azerbaijanis were banished from their homes. At the
same time military forces of the Russian Army attacked strategically
important part of the Azerbaijani-Turkish border in Sadarak region
(Nakhchivan).
May 18-19 - In connection with the occupation of Lachin district of
Azerbaijan decision making on an extraordinary preparing meeting of
the CSCE participating states at the Conference on Nagorny Karabakh
which was held under the aegis of CSCE was failed.
June-September - Rounds of negotiations were held within the framework
of the CSCE Minsk group on the cessation of the offensive operations,
de-escalation of the conflict and normalisation of the life of
ordinary citizens.
September 19 - Agreements on cessation of all military actions in 2
months period reached by Defence Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan
with the participation of the Ministers of defence and Security of
Russia (Sochi).
September-November - Visits and consultations of the Russian mediator
mission in the region.
November 26-December 1 - Meeting of the CSCE Ad-hoc group with the
competence of advanced group of observes (Vienna).
December 7-9 - Unofficial meeting of the personal representatives of
the Presidents of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Russia, USA and Turkey
(Geneva).
December 9-12 - Violation of the agreement reached between Defence
Ministers of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Sochi, Armenia occupied 8
villages of Zangelan district of Azerbaijan.
- 1993 -
February 5 - Beginning of the large-scale attacks of the military
forces of the Russian Army in the northern part of the front.
March 17-21 - Meeting of Personal Representatives of Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Russia, USA, Turkey and chairman of the CSCE Minsk group.
March 27-April 3 - Occupation of Kalbadjar district of Azerbaijan by
the armed forces of Armenia, which is situated outside of Nagorny
Karabakh, as a result of this 60698 Azerbaijanis were driven out from
their permanent residences.
March 31 - Resumption of the meeting in Geneva. Personal
Representative of the President of USA is breaking off the
negotiations because of the occupation of Kalbadjar district of
Azerbaijan by Armenia.
April 6 - The Statement of the Chairman of the UN Security Council,
condemning the occupation of the district of Kalbadjar.
April 30 - The adoption of the resolution 822 by UN Security Council,
demanding "the immediate withdrawal of all occupying forces from the
district of Kalbadjar and other recently occupied districts of
Azerbaijan".
June 3-4 - The Consultations of "the Minsk Nine". Adoption of
"Schedule of urgent measures on implementation of the resolution 822
of the UN Security Council".
June 17 - The arrangement through the mediation of Russia on ceasing
of bombardment of Aghdam and Stepanakert.
June 26-28 - The armed forces of the Republic of Armenia captured the
city of Aghdara of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
June 27 - The arrangement through mediation of Russia on ceasing
hostilities, shelling and air bombardment for one week in the
districts of Mardakert and Aghdam.
July 12 - The visit of Mr. Rafaelli to Baku, Yerevan and Stepanakert
aiming at adoption of the schedule of the Minsk Group.
July 18-20 - The visit of the mediator mission of Russia to Baku.
July 23-24 - The occupation of the district of Aghdam of Azerbaijan,
which is situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, by the armed forces of
Armenia, as a result 158000 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their
permanent residences.
July 29 - The adoption of the resolution 853 by the UN Security
Council, "demanding the immediate, complete and unconditional
withdrawal of occupation forces involved in the conflict from the
district of Aghdam and all other recently occupied districts of the
Azerbaijan Republic.
July 21-August 12 - Consultations of OSCE Minsk Group. It was adopted
"the schedule of urgent measures for implementing of the resolution
822 and 853 of the UN Security Council".
August 11 - Beginning of attacks of the Armenian armed forces to the
district centers of Fizuli and Jabrail of Azerbaijan.
August 18 - The statement of the UN Security Council's Chairman on
immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of the occupation
forces from the districts of Fizuli, as well as Kalbadjar and Aghdam
and other recently occupied districts of the Azerbaijan Republic.
August 23 - The occupation of the district of Fizuli of Azerbaijan,
situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh by the Armenian armed forces, as
a result 152860 Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent
residences.
August 25-26 - The Armenian armed forces occupied the district of
Jabrail, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result 57125
Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent residences.
August 31 - The Armenian armed forces occupied the district of Gubadly
of Azerbaijan, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result 31364
Azerbaijanis were driven out from their permanent residences.
September 21-28 - Negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group were held
in Paris.
October 14 - The UN SC passed a resolution 874, calling on the parties
"to abstain from any hostile acts and any interference or invasion,
which could led to escalation of the conflict and undermine peace and
security in the region".
October 18-21 - Negotiations within the framework of the Minsk Group.
October 23 - Part of the military forces of the Armenian Republic
assaulted the settlement of Horadiz with tanks. Having occupied this
important transport unit, the Armenians cut off the district of
Zangelan and part of none-occupied territory of Jabrail and Gubadly
from the remaining part of the Republic.
October 28 - The military forces of the Armenian Republic occupied the
rail road station of Minjivan.
October 28-November 1 - The occupation of the district of Zangelan,
Azerbaijan, situated outside of Nagorny Karabakh, as a result, 34924
Azerbaijanis were driven out by the armed forces of Armenia from their
permanent residences.
November 11 - The UN SC passed a resolution 884, demanding "immediate
cease fire and hostility, unilateral withdrawal of occupation forces
from the district of Zangelan and the city of Horadiz and withdrawal
of occupation forces from other districts of Azerbaijan, captured
recently".
November 20 - Firing of the mediator mission of Russia by the Armenian
side. The statement of the former Russian Foreign Minister A.Kozirev
on this matter.
December 10 -The Armenian military forces launched an assault in the
direction of district center of Beylagan.
- 1994 -
January-March - Series of negotiations and consultations to reach an
agreement on cease fire through the mediation of Russia and CSCE.
March 3 - Having broken off the next cease fire agreement, the
Armenian troops resumed the hostilities.
March 31-April 3 - Visit of the peacemaker group of the
Inter-parliamentary Assembly of CIS headed by Speaker of Kyrgizstan
Supreme Council, together with Russian President's representative, to
Baku, Yerevan, and Nagorny Karabakh.
April 9-10 - The command of the Armenian Military Forces launched
large scale assault in the direction of Terter during 33 days.
May 4-5 - The Bishkek meeting of the parliamentary leaders of
Azerbaijan and Armenia and the representatives of the both communities
from Nagorny Karabakh. The "Bishkek protocol" was adopted.
May 9 - The defence ministers of Azerbaijan, Armenia and the
representatives of the Armenian separatist regime from Nagorny
Karabakh signed a cease fire agreement.
May 12 - In the zone of conflict the regime of cease fire started
functioning. Active hostilities on the line of the front came to an
end.
May 19 - The CSCE Permanent Committee. It was passed a statement as a
support for the agreement to strengthening of the cease fire regime.
June 27 - An agreement was signed by the parties as confirmation of
their commitments on cease fire regime up to conclusion of the
political agreement. The joint statement for to support this agreement
was made by the leader of mediator mission of Russia and the chairman
of the Minsk Conference.
August 28 - Unilateral statement of all sides involved in the conflict
and confirmation of the commitments on observation of cease fire
regime until the political agreement to be concluded.
September-November - Continuation of the negotiations between the
competent representatives of the leaders of sides involved in the
conflict in Moscow.
December 5-6 - Meeting of Heads of CSCE member states and governments
in Budapest ("Budapest Decision"). In accordance with the decision of
the summit, it was established an institute of Co-Chairmen of the
Minsk Conference; two stage structuring of the settlement process was
completed; decision was taken on the OSCE peacekeeping operations
after achievement of the political agreement. - 1995 -
May-December - Series of negotiations within the framework of OSCE
Minsk Group on elaboration of agreement for cession of the military
conflict.
- 1996 -
January-November - Series of negotiations within the framework of OSCE
Minsk Group on elaboration of agreement for cessation of the military
conflict.
December 2-3 - Meeting of the Heads of OSCE States and governments in
Lisbon. In the statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office three
principles of the settlement of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict were
- territorial integrity of the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of
Azerbaijan;
- legal status of Nagorny Karabakh defined in the agreement based on
self-determination which confers on Nagorny Karabakh the highest
degree of self rule within Azerbaijan;
- guaranteed security for Nagorny Karabakh and its whole population,
including mutual commitments to ensure compliance by all parties with
the provisions of the settlement.
These principles were supported by 53 OSCE participating states,
except Armenia.
- 1997 -
February 13 - A. Tuleyev, the Minister on cooperation with CIS states
made a statement on the facts of illegal supply of the Russian weapons
to Armenia worth of 270 billion of rubles
February 14- An institute of "triple" Co-Chairmanship of the OSCE
Minsk Conference (Russia, USA and France) was established.
March 4-7 - The Azerbaijani parliamentary delegation headed by Arif
Rahimzadeh, the first deputy chairman of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis
(Parliament) stayed in Moscow in order to find out the circumstances
on the fact of supply of the Russian weapons to the Republic of
Armenia.
March 14 - Appeal of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis to B.Yeltsin, the
President of Russia, E.Stroyev, the Chairman of the Council of
Federation of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation,
G.Seleznyev, the Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of
the Russian Federation.
April 2 - The report of Lev Rokhlin, the Chairman of the Defence
Committee of the State Duma, on delivery of the Russian weapons to the
Republic of Armenia worth of one billion US dollars.
April 4 - Appeal of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis to B.Yeltsin,
E.Stroyev and G.Seleznyev.
April 1-5 - The next round of the negotiations within the framework of
OSCE Minsk Group was held, after it the Armenian side refused to hold
further negotiations on the basis of proposals made by the
Co-Chairmen, worked out according to the principles of the OSCE Lisbon
Summit.
April 4-8 - The Azerbaijani parliamentary delegation headed by Arif
Rahimzadeh, the first deputy Chairman of the Azerbaijani Milli Majlis
(Parliament) stayed in Moscow in order to find out the circumstances
on the facts of supply of the Russian weapons to the Republic of
Armenia.
April 15 - The OSCE delegation headed by A.Kasprzyk, the Personal
Representative of the Chairman-in-Office of OSCE, was fired by the
Armenian side.
April 24 - The statement of the OSCE Chairman-in-Office in connection
with the fire of A.Kasprzyk, the Personal Representative of the
Chairman-in-Office in the zone of conflict.
June 23 - The Denver Statement of the Presidents of the US, Russia and
France, supporting the search of ways for the settlement on the basis
of the Lisbon principles.
September 1 - Illegal so-called "presidential elections" in Nagorny
Karabakh, which was condemned by the world Community.
September 23-24 - Visit of the delegation of Co-Chairmen of the OSCE
Minsk Group to Baku. Proposal on the stage-by-stage settlement.
October 10 - Strasbourg Joint Statement of the Presidents of
Azerbaijan and Armenia on supporting plan of the stage-by-stage
settlement of the conflict.
December 17-19 - The Meeting of the OSCE Ministers of Foreign Affairs
in Copenhagen. The Chairman-in-Office requested the Co-Chairmen of
Minsk Group "to continue their work and urged all sides to resume the
negotiations without delay on the basis of the proposal of the
Co-Chairmen".
- 1998 -
April - The refusal of Armenia from the early reached agreements on
the stage-by-stage settlement of the conflict.
May 13-17 - Visit of the Co-Chairmen to the region. Armenia officially
declared about the renunciation of the consent of the former President
of the Republic of Armenia with the proposal on the stage-by-stage
settlement and supported the package settlement without any
preliminary conditions.
July 14-15 - Visit of I.Sergeyev, the Russian Defence Minister, to
Armenia, in the course of which an agreement on supply of
anti-aircraft weapons S-300 was reached.
November 8-10 - The OSCE Minsk Group Co-Chairmen offered a new plan of
settlement of the conflict, based on the principle of "common state".
The Azerbaijani side refused to accept this proposal as a basis of
resumption of negotiations. Azerbaijan confirmed its readiness to
resume negotiations within the framework of the OSCE Minsk Group on
the basis of the proposals of the Co-Chairmen of September 19, 1997,
on the stage-by-stage settlement of the conflict.
December 2-3 - The meeting of the OSCE Ministers of Foreign Affairs in
Oslo, where the Chairman-in-Office called upon the sides involved in
the conflict to resume the negotiations within the framework of the
Minsk Group without delay.
December 16 - Deliver of 5 Russian MiG-29 fighter aircrafts to
Armenia.
- 1999 -
February 26 - Additional deliver of 5 MiG-29 fighter aircrafts and
surface-to-air missile systems S-300 to Armenia.
March 11 - It was adopted the resolution on "Support of peace process
in Caucasus" on the plenary meeting of the European Parliament for
supporting of the peace plan offered by Minsk Group and continuation
of the efforts for long-termed settlement of the conflict.
March 19 - Milli Majlis (Parliament) of the Republic of Azerbaijan
appealed to the European Parliament, criticizing some provisions of
the resolution on "Support of peace process in Caucasus".
April, 2 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia H.
Aliyev and R. Kocharian was held in Moscow. The arrangement about
intensification of contacts and opinion exchange for seeking of ways
for conflict settlement was reached between the presidents.
April, 24 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia
H. Aliyev and R. Kocharian was held in Washington through mediation M.
Albright. There was put proposals for development of regional
cooperation and measures for strengthening of confidence. As a result,
Washington declaration was adopted.
May - Delivery 8 rockets "Tayfun" with range 60-80 km by China to
Armenia
May, 25 - Hearings on Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict settlement at the
meeting of EC PA Commission on political issues. Speaker of Azerbaijan
parliament M. Aleskerov and leader of Azerbaijani population of
Nagorniy Karabakh N. Bakhmanov addressed the meeting, stating position
of Azerbaijan.
June, 3 - Statement of Foreign Ministry of the Azerbaijan Republic in
connection with delivery of "Tayfun" rockets by China to Armenia
June, 14 - Units of armed forces of Armenia violated cease-fire regime
and attacked positions of Azerbaijani troops along the Contact line in
Negorno-Karabakh region. In connection with this incident UN
Secretary-General, OSCE Chairman-in-Office, US State Department and
Foreign Ministry of Russian Federation issued statements.
June, 18 - Additional delivery of 4 fighters MiG-29 by Russia to
Armenia. Foreign Ministry of Georgia made a protest in connection with
violation of airspace of the country by these fighters.
June, 28 - July, 1 - There was adopted two statements at the XXVI
1. About aggression of Republic of Armenia against Republic of
Azerbaijan
2. About demolition and destruction of Islamic historic and cultural
monuments in the occupied territories of the Azerbaijan Republic as a
result of aggression of the Republic of Armenia against the Republic
of Azerbaijan
July, 16 - Meeting of the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia in
Geneva. Opinion exchange on conflict settlement.
August, 22 - Meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan and Armenia
in Geneva. Consultations for seeking of ways for the conflict
settlement were contiued. As a result of negotiations, instructions on
providing the measures for strengthening of cease-fire regime and
resumption of negotiations within the frames of OSCE Minsk Group was
given to foreign and defense ministries of two countries.
September, 1-2 - Visit of OSCE Minsk Group co-chairmen representing
USA and Russian Federation K. Kavanaugh and N. Gribkov to Baku with
the aim to study the situation in the region.
September, 10 - During the international conference "Baltic-Black Sea
Cooperation: Towards an Integrated 21st Century Europe Without
Dividing Lines" in Yalta, meeting between the presidents of Azerbaijan
and Armenia was held, and opinion exchange on issues of strengthening
of existing cease-fire regime and seeking of the ways of peace
settlement conflict was continued. The parties agreed to resume
negotiation process within the framework of OSCE Minsk Group.
++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/karabakh4.htm
Facts on the illegal transfer of arms, equipment and military property
by Russian Federation to the Republic of Armenia
1. The illegal transfer of weapons by Russian Federation to Armenia
from January 1993, to December 1996, i.e., after the completion of
N Name Quantity Total cost (in US dollars)
1 R-17 missile systems
R-17 missiles
8 32 1.680.000 6.720.000
2 "Krug" surface-to-air systems
Missiles for them
27 349 8.100.000 104.700.000
3 Missiles for the "Osa"
Surface-to-air systems
40 8.000.000
4 T-72 tanks 84 100.800.000
5 BMP - 2 Armoured
Combat Vehicles
50 14.000.000
6 122 mm D-30 howitzers 36 1.372.000
7 152 mm D-20 howitzers 18 720.000
8 152 mm D-1 howitzers 18 900000
9 "Grad" multiple missile systems 18 4.500.000
10 Mortars 26 312.000
11 Portable "Igla" anti-aircraft systems Missiles for them 40 200
1.600.000 8.000.000
12 Grenade launchers 20 50.000
13 Machine-guns 306 122.400
14 Assault rifles 7910 949.200
15 Pistols 1847 110.820
16 Shells for ACV (BMP-2) 478480 14.354.400
17 Shells (various) 489160 195.664.000
18 BM anti-tank self-targeting missiles
Anti-tank self-targeting missiles
4 945 1.320.000 7.938.000
19 Hand grenades 345800 10.374.000
20 Different types of bullets 227253000 227.253.000
21 Among other types of a arms, engineering and military property
belong: transporting and weapon-loading machines, various types of
movable on-wheels radio (including space communications stations),
sets of communications equipment, field communications cables, targets
detection stations, tanking equipment, fuel, accumulators of various
types (including battle tank ones), oil barrels, spare to tanks,
cannons and BMP's, tank engines etc. 720.039.000
TOTAL - 1.000.000.000
The indicated data are not complete and not final.
The whole process of weapon, engineering and military property
transfer was implemented without any bilateral agreement.
Parts of weapons and engineering were transferred according Directives
of General Staff, signed by the former Chief of General Staff of the
- Directive of General Staff No.316/3/0182 of 29.09.94, on transfer
from 102nd military base located in Gumry 25 T-72 tanks with spares of
13 kinds;
- According Directive No.316/3/0220 of August 18, 1995 and 8/824 of
September 25, 1995, 55 T-72 tanks were granted to Armenia;
- Directive of General Staff No.316/3/048 dated 26.02.1996, on
transfer of 4 T-72 tanks and 50 BMP-2.
Moreover, the Republic of Armenia has received missile-artillery
complex, air-defence systems, missiles, ammunition and other military
property.
Particularly, according to the Directive No.561/16/831 of August 8,
1995, of Russian Federation GS of the Armed Forces 50 MP-38, 20 82 mm
AGS-17 grenade launchers, 300 PK machine-guns, 10000 submachine-guns
were transferred to Ministry of Defence of Armenia.
According Directive No.16/338 of November 23, 1995, the followings
were transferred from the Group of Russian troops in Transcaucasus
(GRVZ) to the Defence Ministry of Armenia: 12 D-30 howitzers, 4 BM-21,
50 (14,5 mm) KPVT machine-guns, 3 (12,7 mm) NSVT machine-guns, 40000
(14.5 mm) B-32 bullets, 64000 BZTA bullets, 110000 MDZ bullets, 10000
(12.7 mm) B-32 bullets as well as 7 fifth category howitzers.
On the basis of the encoded telegram No.2234 of November, 23 1995,
signed by Kolesnikov, the followings were transferred from GRVZ to
Armenia: 100 (14,5 mm) KPVT machine-guns, 20 (12,7 mm) NSVT
machine-guns, 20 (12,7 mm) DSK machine-guns, 30 (12,7 mm) NCV
machine-guns, 4 BM-21, 12 D-30 as well as third category of
ammunition: 50000 (12,7 mm) bullets, 260000 (14,5) bullets, 2420 (125
mm) shells for tank cannon D-81.
In accordance with Directive No. 561/16/457 of March 11, 1996, 4 mln.
bullets and 5000 MRV-U fuses were transferred from GRVZ to Armenia.
By the Directive of General Staff No.503/23-26 of July 20, 1996, 85
tons of spares were transported by 5 IL-76 planes from airport of
Chkalovskaya.
Azerbaijan has also reliable information that Armenia possess R-17
operative-tactical missile complexes able to carry nuclear warheads.
In order to prepare specialists, 20 officers and ensigns from Military
Unit No.51556 of the MoD of Armenia, names of whom are known, had a
training for practical learning to work with these complexes in the
Training Center "Kapoustin Yar" of Russian MoD. After the completing
the course one missile was launched.
Big amount of transfers were carried out even without relevant
Directives of Russian GS AF.
From August 1992 to January 1994 66 IL-76 flights and two AN-12
flights transported about 1300 tons of ammunition from airport of
Mozdok to Yerevan.
From November 8 to November 28, 1995, and from June 28 to August 6,
1996, 31 AN-124 flights and 13 IL-76 flights have transferred 50 T-72
tanks, property and spares to them, 36 D-CI howitzers, 18 D-20
howitzers, 18 D-1 howitzers, 18 "Grad" multiple missiles systems, 40
portable "Igla" anti-aircraft systems and 200 missiles for them, 12600
shells for the mentioned guns, including 1440 for "Grad" systems from
airport "Jasmine" (Akhtubinsk, Russia) to airport of Zvartnots
(Yerevan, Armenia).
The property was shipped to Akhtubinsk by six troop-trains: tanks from
Omsk, ammunition from Volgograd, artillery from Irkutsk, Sverdlovsk,
Perm oblast (areas).
Delivered weapons were transferred further to Nagorny Karabakh where
the acceptance of the armoured vehicles, optic and electronic
equipment and other weapons was done by Colonel Slava Ucnunts, Deputy
MoD of so called "Nagorno-Karabakh Republic" and Marat Garibian, Head
of antitank unit at the armament factories in Nijniy Tagil,
Sankt-Peterburg and other cities of Russia. During the indicated
period the most updated military engineering were delivered to
Armenia. In 1994 Armenians received surface-to-air system "Tunguska"
which was installed in Khankendi, Nagorny Karabakh. All these explains
the reason of appearance of magnificent amount of weapon and
No. Military Units Location Battle tanks ACV AP
1. 538 Independent Infantry Regiment Aghdaban 13 15 15
2. 2 Independent Infantry Brigade Karakhanbeyli 29 23 36
3. 83 Independent Infantry Brigade Dashkesan 20 27 22
4. Mardakert Infantry Division Mardakert 76 79 74
5. Askeran Infantry Regiment Aghdam 32 43 42
6. Martuni Infantry Regiment Martuni 40 60 40
7. Gadrut Infantry Regiment Gadrut 20 32 22
8. Stepanakert Infantry Regiment Stepanakert 18 28 22
9. Khodjaly Training Unit Khodjaly 52 7 39
10. Shusha Infantry Regiment Shusha 16 10 10
Battle Tanks - 316
Armoured Combat vehicles - 324
Artillery Pieces - 322
on the occupied territories of Azerbaijan which exceed the envisaged
for Azerbaijan maximum level for CFE TLE.
At the end of 1993 and beginning of 1994 T-72 battle tanks and ACVs
transferred to Armenia by Russian Federation were captured in the
1. BATTLE TANKS T-72
T02BT7975
X06AT3007
E04BT9276
E04BT9264
T02BT7979
E04BT9314
E03BT4785
T02BT7945
K03BT7524
E04BT9261
T02BT7963
E03BT4793
a04ag9250
o06sg3021
a04ag9257
g02ag7940
g02ag8000
a04ag9271
a04ag9317
a03ag4777
g02ag7938
g02ag7961
a04ag9273
ACV (BMP-1) ACV (BMP-2)
u10OO762
u01OO612
u01OO591
A08AO0663
A08AO0683
n01oT3596
X01oT7522
o11oT3236
n01oT6279
n11og3652
n12oT5806
E09oT4046
Arms supply by Russia to Armenia in 1998
On December 15-16, 1998, during a visit of Colonel-General A.Kornukov,
Russia's Air Force Comander-in-Chief, to Armenia there were agreements
reached in the field of Russian-Armenian Military Cooperation. In
- the concrete technical issues to strengthen Russian Military base
No.102. located in Armenia, and to establish within it a new
air-groups;
- further updating of air-defence system's work, including equipment
by using modern types of weapons, for example, S-300 surface-to-air
systems;
- permanent basing of Russian MiG-29 on the territory of Armenia.
Ten MiG-29 fighter aircrafts were delivered to Armenia in December
1998 and February 1999. At the same time, a anti-aircraft missile
systems S-300 were delivered to Armenia.
Approximate cost of MiG-29 in world weapon market is more than 10 mln.
US dollars.
+++++++++++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/the_war_in_azerbaijan.html
THE WAR
This site is dedicated to all those who lost their lives in the
massacres commited by Armenians in Anatolia and Azerbaijan
The latest conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan started in February
of 1988 and lasts already for more than a decade. In a short time this
conflict was aggravated and turned a real war. Azerbaijani Republic
plunged into the war when it still was a constituency of the Soviet
Union and keeps struggling as an independent state now. From the
viewpoint of International Law the conflict is the result of
aggression of neighboring Armenian Republic, who made timely
preparations for the war in military, political, economic,
propagandist, ideological, psychological and other spheres. And the
command for aggression was the actions of Armenian separatist groups
in Karabakh, who declared separation of this region from Azerbaijan.
The tasks of Armenian agressors in the conflict, carried out by force,
are the following: alteration of existing borders, occupation and
subsequent annexation of Karabakh and adjacent Azeri territories.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The first clashes between Armenians and Azeris took place in February
of 1988, when Armenian separatists demanded eviction of Azeris from
just the very Azeri villages and when leaders of Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) attempted to separate this province from
Azerbaijan and join Armenia. In a number of regions these clashes
turned into large-scale civil disorders, resulting by death of many
innocent Azeris. In late November of 1988 military detachments of
Armenian Republic conducted the first in this conflict and the forth
in the 20th century large-scale ethnic cleansing deporting over
200,000 Azeris (including women, children, the old) from the places of
compact living of Azeris in Armenia.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Incompetent actions of Moscow and the general crisis of USSR persuaded
the leaders of separatist movement in NKAO and nationalistic
organizations of Armenia in possibility and necessity to carry out the
plan of forceful separation of Karabakh from Azerbaijan. And the
ultimate goal was ousting the Azeri population from Karabakh, forming
a new ethnic situation, and subsequent annexation of Karabakh by
Armenia. Since 1988 all political activities of Armenia in all
regional and international levels were aimed to realization of these
goals. After Armenia actually escaped the control of Moscow, they
managed to shift a number of industrial plants to production of
primitive models of weapons. These arms and ammunition were secretly
transferred to Karabakh; secret military formations of Armenian
Republic tried to occupy other territories of Azerbaijan.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The aggressive policy of Armenian Republic resulted by occupation of
over 20% of Azerbaijani territory. 120,000 people perished, over
250,000 wounded, 4,000 POWs or missing without trace. Over 1,100,000
Azeris left their homes and became refugees. The material damage, made
by Armenian forces, is estimated for $60 billions. During the
aggression 10 towns (Khankendi, Shusha, Lachin, Kelbejar, Agdam,
Fizuli, Gubadli, Zangilan, Jabrayil, Agdere), 876 villages, 113,000
houses, 191 hospitals, 693 schools, 700 public building, 160 bridges
were destroyed; 5,446 children became orphans. 800 km of roads, 2,300
km of water pipelines was destroyed. Nevertheless this is the JUST WAR
for Azerbaijan.
By Ismayil Abdulazimov
+++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/khojaly_tragedy.html
KHOJALY TRAGEDY
Massacre of Khojaly
One of the most heinous crimes against the Azerbaijani people was
the massacre of hundreds of defenseless inhabitants of the town of
Khojaly, in the Nagorno Karabakh region of the Azerbaijan, which was
taken by armenian troops on the night of February 25-26, 1992 in what
was described by the Human Rights Watch as "the largest massacre to
date in the conflict".
Khojaly is an Azerbaijani town strategically located on the Agdam
? Shusha and Hankendi (Stepanakert) ? Askeran roads in
Nagorno-Karabakh region of Azerbaijan. The town' population was over
7,000 people.
The Armenian armed forces and mercenary units spared virtually none of
those who had been unable to flee Khojaly and the surrounding area. In
the words of the journalist Chingiz Mustafaev, among the dead were
"... dozens upon dozens of children between 2 and 15 years old, women
and old people, in most cases shot at point-blank range in the head.
The position of the bodies indicated that the people had been killed
in cold blood, calculatedly, without any sign of a struggle or of
having tried to escape.
Some had been taken aside and shot separately; many had been
killed as entire families at once. Some corpses displayed several
wounds, one of which was invariably in the head, suggesting that the
wounded were executed. Some children were found with severed ears; the
skin had been cut from the left side of an elderly woman's face; and
men had been scalped. There were corpses that had clearly been robbed.
The first time we arrived at the scene of the shootings of February
28, accompanied by two military helicopters, we saw from the air an
open area about one kilometer across which was full with corpses
almost everywhere..."
***
An inhabitant of Khojaly, Djanan Orudjev, also provided
information on the many victims, mostly women and children. His
16-year-old son was shot, and his 23-year-old daughter with her twin
children and another 18-year-old daughter who was pregnant, were taken
hostage. Sana Talybova, who witnessed the tragedy as it unfolded,
watched as four Meskheti Turks, refugees from Central Asia, and three
Azerbaijanis were beheaded near the grave of an Armenian soldier;
children were tortured and killed in front of their parents; and two
Azerbaijanis had their eyes taken out with screwdrivers. The organized
nature of the extermination of the population of Khojaly was evident
from the killing, in previously prepared ambushes, of peaceful
inhabitants who fled the town in desperation to save their lives. For
example, Elman Mamedov, chief of administration in Khojaly, reported
that a large group of people who had left Khojaly came under intensive
fire from Armenian positions near the village of Nakhichevanik.
Another resident of Khojaly, Sanubar Alekperova, reported numbers of
corpses of women, children and old people near Nakhichevanik, where
they fell into an ambush. Her mother and her two daughters, Sevinzh
and Khidzhran, were killed and she herself was wounded. Faced with
this mass shooting, some of the group made for the village of
Gyulably, but there Armenians took some 200 people hostage. Among them
was Dzhamil Mamedov; the Armenians tore out his nails, beat him and
took away his grandson. His wife and daughter vanished without trace.
***
"I had heard a lot about wars, about the cruelly of the Fascists,
but the Armenians were worse, killing five and six-year-old children,
killing innocent civilians", said a French journalist, Jean-Yves
Junet, who visited the scene of this mass murder of women, old people,
children and defenders of Khojaly.
«Khojaly - The Last Day»,
Baku, Azrbaijan publishers, 1992.
***
The report of Memorial, a Moscow-based human rights group, on the
massive violations of human rights committed during the massacre of
Khojaly, says of the civilians flee in the town: "Efell into ambushes
set by the Armenians and came under fire. Some of them nonetheless
managed to gel into Agdam; others, mostly women and children, froze to
death while lost in the mountains; others still, according to
testimony from those who reached Agdam, were taken prisoner near the
villages of Pirdzhamal and Nakhichevanik. There is evidence from
inhabitants of Khojaly, who have already been exchanged, thai some of
the prisoners were shot ... Around 200 bodies were brought into Agdam
in this space of four days. Scores of the corpses bore traces of
profanation. Doctors on a hospital train in Agdam noted no less than
Four corpses that had been scalped and one that had been beheaded.
State forensic examinations were carried in Agdam on 181 corpses (130
male and 51 female, including 13 children); the findings were that 151
people had died from gunshot wounds. 20 from shrapnel wounds and 10
from blows inflicted with a blunt instrument... The records of the
hospital train in Agdam, through which almost all the injured
inhabitants or defenders of Khojaly passed, refer to 598 cases of
wounds or frostbite E and one case of live scalping." ("A tragedy
whose perpetrators cannot be vindicated. A report by Memorial, the
Moscow-based human rights group, on the massive violations of human
rights committed in the taking of Khojaly on the night of February
25-26, 1992 by armed units.)
«Svoboda» newspaper,
June 12, 1992.
***
The massacre of Khojaly set a pattern of destruction and ethnic
cleansing methodically carried out by the Armenian armed forces. On
November 29, 1993, Newsweek quoted a senior US Government official as
saying: "What we see now is a systematic destruction of every
village in their way. It's vandalism."
Every year religious leaders of Azerbaijan; Christian, Jewish and
Muslim communities issue appeals on the eve of commemoration of the
massacre of Khojaly. This year four leaders of Ashkenazi and Sephardic
Jewish communities, the Orthodox Bishop of Baku and Caspian region,
and the Spiritual Leader of Caucasus Muslims urged the international
community to condemn the February 26, 1992 bloodshed and facilitate
liberation of the occupied territories.
Religious leaders of Azerbaijan diverse communities stated their
rejection of extremism and policy of ethnic cleansing conducted by
Armenia. They see the future of Azerbaijan as beine a democratic
secular society based on humanistic values.
++++++++++++++++++++++
http://www.armenianreality.com/massacres_in_azerbaijan/pictures_of_azerbaijan_massacre.html
Ali Asker
2004-08-30 15:17:42 UTC
Permalink
hahahahahaha............

These Turks and their theories would make anyone lough that's why I
posted turkoman site and a statement from their so called lieder!!!

As far as Turks conserns they are the first human race that rulled the
planet and everything has started from them. They reckon everything is
related to turkey or the turkishness..

I just feel pity for these low life individuals and the nation who
call themselves Turks....
Post by Yiannis
Post by Ali Asker
'Iraq Will never Find Peace Unless We get our Rights'
More veiled threats from Angora.SO what else is new?
BTW Turkmen in Iraq should consider Turkemenistan as an option.I hear
that Turkmenbashi (the President-for-life and "father" of Turkmen) is
thinking about building a palace of ice in one of the deserts over
there.Bound to need labour, that.
Also, loved that bit on your site where it said that Turks have been
living in Iraq for 3000 years.Brought back fond memories of Atasmurf's
highly entertaining Sun-People theories. I 'll recomend it to anyone
in need of a good laugh! You really can't beat the stuff about the
Turkish origin of many words in the Assyrian language.
Good work people, keep it up.
mark rivers
2004-08-31 13:48:02 UTC
Permalink
***@hotmail.com (Ali Asker), a thug of PKK/KADEK terrorist
organization, a full-time, professional and unconditional hater and
murderer of innocent citizens of the Democratic Republic of Turkey,
posts an anti-Turkish hate propaganda fabricated by mouth-pieces of
the same PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which, with the support of
the enemies of Turkey (Syria, Belgium, Sweden, Netherlands,
Switzerland, Denmark, France, Greece and others) and with the income
it obtained from major illegal drug trafficking to Europe, robberies,
extortions, etc. murdered nearly 40 thousands innocent human beings in
Turkey and ruined the health and property of many thousands of others
to destroy democratic goverment of the Republic of Turkey and
establish a marxist, lennist, communist PKK/KADEK dictatorship in
South East Turkey.This is against the laws of all countries in the
World including Turkey. Any country, as well as Turkey, will defend
itself against such terrorism as a most legitimate and legal right.

To hell with you all PKK/KADEK terrorists !!!!!

PKK/KADEK is not a democratically elected represantative of Kurdish
citizens of Turkey. Democratically elected represantatives of the
citizens of Turkey of Kurdish descend are in the goverment as MPs,
ministers, PMs, presidents, judjes, etc., certainly not as terrorists
murdering innocent human beings. Plus, all citizens of Turkey of
Kurdish descend, like everybody else, are serving their country as
soldiers, officers and generals in the military, police officers,
lawyers and judges in the law enforcement organizations, pursuing
their lives as business man and woman, professional careers in the
private business and goverment institutions. And, none of them feel
they have to murder innocent human beings "to defend themselves". All
citizen of Turkey, regardless of race, language, religion, gender,
etc., have their undeniable right and freedom under the law to defend
their rights and freedoms, pursue solutions for the problems they
think they have by only legal, peacefull and democratic ways and
means, definitely not "whatever means is possible" and certainly not
by terrorism.





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk3.htm



What is the PKK/KADEK ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The PKK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan Workers' Party"), formed
in 1978 by Abdullah Öcalan, is the most notorious terror organization
in the world. It has been waging a vicious campaign of terror against
Turkey since 1984 with the external support of certain states and
circles whose aim is to destabilize Turkey.

The PKK was identified as one of the 30 main terrorist organizations
in the world by the US Secretary of State in October 1997, and it was
also described in the same way in US State Department "Patterns of
Global Terrorism" reports.

PKK's terrorist activities have resulted, to date, in the death of
thousands of people, including women, the elderly, children and in
many instances even infants. The PKK has also murdered over one
hundred school teachers, who became inevitable targets of the
terrorists since it was judged that PKK's subversive views could be
most easily imposed on the uneducated and the ignorant. Lists giving
the figures of ordinary individuals and public servants, ruthlessly
killed or maimed by the PKK terrorists, are in annex.

The PKK has employed murder, intimidation, kidnapping and destruction
to achieve its nefarious objectives. It targets ordinary people,
because it aims to subjugate the local population in southeastern
Turkey into supporting its evil deeds. The PKK has attacked the entire
inhabitants of villages in southeast Anatolia. These attacks are also
designed to make the region uninhabitable. The PKK destroys schools,
sets forests on fire, blows up railways and bridges, plants mines on
roads, burns down construction machinery, and demolishes health
centers. A list containing the figures of material damage caused by
PKK's terrorist attacks is also in annex.

In response, the authorities trained the villagers to defend
themselves and also moved some people to locations where they would be
safer. These two measures, intended to protect the local population
against terrorism, have been at the center of a misinformation
campaign by the PKK and its sympathizers.

The PKK indiscriminately murders the very people on whose behalf it
purports to act : Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin. Ironically, the
PKK regards Masud Barzani's Kurdish Democratic Party and Jalal
Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, the two main Kurdish
groupings in northern Iraq, as its adversaries.

Due to its ability to strike Turkey from Syria and (after the 1991
Gulf War) northern Iraq, the PKK proved for some time a serious threat
to law and order and claimed many victims. Following its operations
against PKK facilities in northern Iraq Turkey restored law and order
throughout the southeastern provinces.

The PKK has been supported and sheltered by some of Turkey's
neighbors, as well as by some others outside the region. Syria and
Greece are the principal countries that have been supporting the PKK
for years. However, with the signing of Adana memorandum on October
20, 1998, the Syrian connection has been broken. Syrian authorities
have promised not to support terrorist activities against Turkey and
taken some steps in this direction. Turkey closely monitors Syrian
compliance with the Adana agreement. Yet, Greece, a NATO ally, backs
the PKK and its affiliates by every means at its disposal. Confessions
and testimonies of dozens of PKK militants arrested in Turkey reveal
that Greek support to PKK terrorism goes much beyond than what was
generally estimated. Most recently, revelations made by the PKK member
Fethi Demir and by ?emdin Sak›k, PKK's "second man" captured in
northern Iraq, have helped to confirm concretely the continuing Greek
support to the PKK. The statement made by Greek Premier Simitis on
November 26, 1998, leaves no room for doubt about the position of
Greece vis-a-vis the PKK : "the PKK is an organization fighting for
the rights of the Kurdish minority and using various means to reach
this end." Can there be a more explicit approval of PKK terrorism?
There is of course other evidence and documentation concerning Greek
support to PKK terrorism.

The PKK terrorist organization, among others, employs the following
methods in the perpetration of its crimes:

a) Indiscriminate terror against the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin mainly in southeastern Turkey. Targets included
children, women, and the elderly. In some places PKK terrorists have
wiped out isolated, dispersed settlements and hamlets.

The aim is to force the local population into submission, to make them
provide sanctuary.

b) Indiscriminate terror against non-Kurdish population. The purpose
is to discredit the state institutions and to cause instability.

c) Terror against selected targets.

- Assassination of well known personalities, judicial, law enforcement
and security personnel.

- Assassination of state functionaries that provide services to the
local population in southeastern Turkey (civil servants, teachers,
health personnel, technical personnel, etc.).

- Assassination of village guardsmen and their families.

- Attacks on and occupation of official missions of Turkey abroad
(diplomatic, consular, commercial, tourism, etc.) as well as
headquarters or branch offices of semi-official institutions (Turkish
Airlines offices, banks, etc.).Attacks and acts of arson against the
houses, business facilities, associations and mosques of the Turkish
community living in western Europe, mainly in Germany. These acts of
terror are mostly carried out through proxies and front organizations
that are permitted by the authorities of the host countries to operate
in those states.

d) Terror within the ranks of the PKK, against informants and
repentant militants. Over the years, Öcalan has ordered the killing of
numerous PKK defectors and potential rivals. In the past decade, the
PKK has conducted assassinations, kidnappings and acts of arson in
Western Europe against former PKK members and defectors.
Assassinations of PKK defectors occurred in Sweden in 1984 and 1985;
in Denmark in 1985; in the Netherlands in 1987 and 1989; in Germany in
1986, 1987, and 1988.

e) Wider hit and run tactics against border posts and military
patrols.

f) Terrorist attacks against industrial infrastructure, oil
facilities, social facilities, and tourist sites with the aim of
weakening the Turkish economy and tarnishing its image. As part of
these terror acts, the PKK bombed passenger trains, ferryboats, and
buses. Several of these attacks resulted in civilian casualties. In
1993 and 1994 it also staged a series of kidnappings of foreigners in
southeastern Turkey to frighten away tourists and to embarrass the
Turkish government.

g) The head of the terrorist organization PKK has advocated and
ordered the use of suicide bombings against Turkish targets that
resulted in the deaths of security personnel and civilians, and
injuries to many more.

Obviously, such an enterprise of crime and violence like the PKK
requires colossal human and financial resources. As there are no
legitimate ways or means to obtain the required resources, PKK's only
option is to resort to illegal and illegitimate methods. Hence, the
PKK is heavily engaged in organized crime activities, including
extortion, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human smuggling (illegal
immigration), and abduction of children. Such racketeering takes place
particularly in western Europe.

The PKK has been carrying out its activities abroad through its front
organization ERNK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan National
Liberation Front"), the so-called "Kurdistan Parliament in Exile", its
mouthpiece MED TV, and through other affiliated offices, centers and
associations.

Through these front establishments, the PKK organizes and carries out
its illegal activities. It also uses them to make its propaganda so as
to influence and mislead the public opinion in west European countries
for obtaining popular support to its subversive ends.

The abduction of children and youngsters in some European countries by
these front organizations deserves special mention. According to
police reports and press articles in several west European countries,
the PKK recently organized kidnappings of children, of 14-17 years of
age, in Varmland/Sweden through the ERNK, and in Celle/Germany through
"Kurdish Information Bureaus", or "Kurdish Culture Centers". The
statements of some of the abducted children, as well as press and
police reports reveal that the PKK kidnapped these youngsters, took
them to its camps, located in some other west European countries, and
forced them into training as terrorist militants.

The Turkish authorities spared no effort in drawing the attention of
the west European countries to such criminal and illegal activities of
the PKK, but unfortunately their calls to prevent these activities
usually fell on deaf ears. The complaints of the children's families,
however, attracted the attention of the public and thus created a
strong reaction towards what the PKK and its affiliates have in fact
been doing for years. The police in Sweden and Germany are now
investigating the matter.

Terrorism constitutes today one of the most serious violations of
human rights, in particular the fundamental right to life. By
murdering thousands of people, the PKK has violated the right to life.
Therefore, all the PKK terrorists, including their head Öcalan, must
answer in the court of law for their crimes.

All societies threatened by terrorism have the right to take
appropriate measures to protect themselves from violence and to
eradicate terrorism. Turkey's fight against the PKK terrorism is of
this nature and aims not only to maintain security and to protect its
citizens, but also to pave the way for economic and social development
in the regions where this is needed most. This fight against terrorism
observes democratic principles and the rule of law, with great care
being given to respect the rights of innocent civilians.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk4.htm


Who is Abdullah Öcalan ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abdullah Öcalan was born in the province of Sanliurfa in 1949. He
speaks Turkish and has only a poor grasp of some Kurdish dialects. He
had a conventional education and his original wish was to be an
officer in the Turkish Army. He failed the entrance examination for
the military academy. He did, however, gain admission in 1971 to the
Ankara University Political Sciences Faculty. There, he joined the
underground movements trying to overthrow Turkey's parliamentary
system. He was expelled from the university for non-attendance and his
illegal activities.

The cell of terrorists which he controlled soon broke links with other
groups. It was known for its use of extreme violence and the "Apocu's"
(Followers of Abdullah Öcalan), as the PKK was called in its early
days, had a special trademark: they hacked off the noses of their
opponents. In the late 1970's, Öcalan collaborated closely with the
Soviet Union and with Syria which were attempting to create political
turmoil in Turkey. In 1980, Öcalan fled to Syria. He began to use
Syrian facilities, including camps in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanese
territory under Syrian control, to train terrorist groups for
cross-border terrorist attacks against targets in Turkey. He started
to inject an ethnic dimension to his terrorist activities, though this
usually had to be imposed on local populations by violent means,
including the kidnapping young men at gun point and then forcing them
to undergo indoctrination and join his movement. In August 1984,
Öcalan's terrorist groups began attacking Turkish police stations and
similar targets in the southeastern provinces north of the border with
Syria and Iraq.

The PKK operates along the familiar lines of traditional communist
parties and carries out terrorist activities under the rigid direction
of its Central Committee. Both its "political" and "military" wings
are controlled directly by Öcalan. As its sole head, Öcalan, has
callously masterminded thousands of PKK's terrorist activities against
Turkey and its people. As such, he has been responsible for thousands
of deaths, kidnappings, mutilations and attacks on innocent people
during his long years as a professional terrorist and murderer.

In October 1998, Turkey warned Syria that it would take action unless
it ceased its support for Öcalan and PKK terrorism. It formally
requested the extradition of Öcalan to Turkey. As a result, Öcalan was
compelled to leave Syria where he had been given shelter for almost
two decades. Furthermore, by an agreement signed between the two
countries on October 20, 1998 in Adana/Turkey, the Syrian Government
for the first time designated the PKK as a terrorist organization, and
pledged not to allow the presence and the activities of the PKK on its
territory. Later, Öcalan was forced to leave Moscow, where he had
escaped from Syria, following political and diplomatic contacts
between Turkey and the Russian Federation.

Öcalan was apprehended in Rome while trying to illegally enter Italy
with a false passport on November 12, 1998. As the British Government
put it, Öcalan's arrest was "a significant advance in the
international community's fight against terrorism."

Öcalan is not only a terrorist but also a common criminal, being
sought by the Turkish courts under charges of homicide and incitement
to homicide. There is thus a red corner bulletin for him issued by the
Interpol. In accordance with a court decision given in 1990, Germany
also had an arrest warrant on Öcalan again for homicide and incitement
to homicide.

All democratic, law-abiding countries as well as international
institutions are obligated to take a consistent and firm stance in
combating terrorism and bringing terrorists to justice. Under
obligations and commitments within the framework of the United
Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the NATO, and the EU, no
country or government can provide terrorists with safe-haven or evade
its responsibilities in the efforts to eliminate terrorism. Therefore,
Öcalan should never be granted political asylum anywhere and he has to
be extradited to Turkey to face trial for his crimes against Turkish
citizens.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------






http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk5.htm



PKK's Involvement in Organized Crimes

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The PKK engages in organized crimes such as drug trafficking and arms
smuggling, extortion, human smuggling, abduction of children and money
laundering in an attempt to recruit militants and to obtain financial
resources needed to carry out its terrorist activities.

The "Sputnik Operation" conducted in a coordinated fashion in some
European countries in September 1996 exposed PKK's links with
organized crime and money laundering activities.

On the other hand, it is known that the PKK, together with other
organized crime gangs, is also behind the recent wave of illegal
immigration to Italy. PKK's objective is to create international
pressure and antipathy against Turkey.

Moreover, the PKK plays an important role in drug trafficking which
constitutes one of the most evil crimes of our age. The British weekly
magazine "The Spectator" underlined this fact in its 28 November-5
December 1998 issue by saying that "…According to the British security
services sources the PKK is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin
sold in the European Union…" .

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk6.htm




Drug Trafficking and Terrorist Organizations

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

All terrorist organizations need to raise funds to sustain their
violent activities and resort to illegal means to finance their
crimes. Drug trafficking comes at the top of this list of illegal
money raising activities, followed by robbery, extortion, kidnapping,
blackmailing and arms smuggling.

In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that terrorism and
drug trafficking are intertwined. The terms "narco-terrorism" and
"narco-terrorists" have started to gain circulation in describing the
link between terrorist organizations and narcotics smugglers. This
fact is illustrated by certain international documents. The UN
Convention Against Illicit Traffic In Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances (1988) refers to the relationship between illicit drug
traffic and other organized criminal activities which undermine the
stability, security and legitimacy of sovereign states.

Paragraph 5 of the UN International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)'s
1992 report points out that "illicit cultivation of narcotic plants
and illicit trafficking in drugs continue to be a threat to the
political, economic and social stability of several countries. Links
appear to exist between illicit cultivation and drug trafficking and
the activities of subversive organizations in some countries."

The 1993 INCB report draws attention to the organic connections
between drug cartels and terrorist organizations, and also to the
globalization of drug smuggling. The successive INCB reports point out
that these drug cartels concentrate their activities in ethnically and
economically troubled regions of the world. It is no coincidence that
terrorist organizations thrive in the very same regions.

The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action adopted at the World
Conference on Human Rights (25 June 1993) stresses that "the acts,
methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations
as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking are
activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental
freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of
states and destabilizing legitimately constituted governments, and the
international community should take the necessary steps to enhance
cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism."

The Final Communiqué of the Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2nd
Pan-European Ministerial Conference (Strasbourg, 4 February 1994)
underlines the fact that "considering the continuous increase in and
the spread of drug trafficking incidents, the involvement of violent
organizations in such activities constitute a serious threat to the
contemporary society" (Art.9), and thus, "it is vital for the security
forces to combat terrorism effectively" (Art.l5).

The UN Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism
adopted at the 49th session of the General Assembly, underlines the
concern by the international community at the growing and dangerous
links between terrorists groups, drug traffickers and their
paramilitary gangs which have resorted to all types of violence, thus
endangering the constitutional order of States and violating basic
human rights. This Declaration also emphasizes the desirability of
closer cooperation and coordination among States in combating crimes
closely connected with terrorism, including drug trafficking, unlawful
arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of nuclear and other
potentially deadly materials.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------




http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk8.htm


Foreign Press Reports

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


* In January 1992, the Bremen Police arrested a "Kurd" selling drugs.
The police found a bunch of keys in his pocket, which belonged to an
apartment where "Kurds" lived. Hanging on the walls of the said
apartment were posters of the PKK and its leader Abdullah Öcalan. The
police also found some clues suggesting that the PKK finances its
armed struggle by the heroin trade (SAT-1 TV, 24 Hours, 6 January
1992).

* In 1992, a total number of 2,069 drug addicts died in Germany. In
the same year, the German police apprehended some children aged 10-12,
coming from southeastern Turkey and selling drugs in Hamburg. A child
of 8 carrying a firearm was also arrested. All these children
confessed that the PKK was using them to sell drugs, since they did
not have penal responsibility. The police seized 30 kg. of heroin from
a "Kurd" who was said to have transferred DM 150,000 to his partners.
The estimated figure the PKK earns from the narcotics trade is more
than 56 million DM (VOX TV ; Germany, 12 February 1993).

* In 1993, more than 50 PKK members were arrested by the Essen Police
of Germany. The Federal Criminal Department in Wiesbaden found out
that the PKK was organizing drug trafficking in Germany and the
narcotics trade in Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfurt and Essen was under the
control of the PKK (German Daily "NRZ," 30 March 1993).

* The Hamburg Criminal Police arrested a band of Kurdish drug
smugglers on 15 September 1993. 11-year-old children, who were also
arrested with the other members of the band, later confessed to the
police that the PKK illegally brought them from Turkey to Germany in
order to make them sell drugs for the organization (Hamburg Local TV
Broadcast, 15 September 1993).

* Three years of intensive police investigation by the Slagelse Police
and the Narcotics Section of the National Police Force in Denmark
resulted in the solution of several armed robberies whose spoils were
used to finance narcotics purchases. The police captured a Danish
person, who had links with two Turkish narcotics kingpins living in
Denmark. During the trial the close relationship between these people
and the PKK was proven. The superintendent Niels Bech of the National
Police Force expressed that large parts of the profits from the
narcotics sales in Denmark have returned to Turkey. In one case DDK
140,000 were sent to Turkey and kilos of heroin was sent to Europe in
return (Danish Daily, "Berlingske Tidende," 31 October 1993).

* Two young PKK members (aged 14 and 16) were caught by the police
selling drugs at the Trabrennbahn Train Station near Wandsbeck on 26
September 1994 ("Bild-Hamburg" 28 September 1994).

* On 5-6 October 1994 the "Bild" reported that narcotics were being
distributed from Jork in Alten Land to Northern Germany and that the
Kurdish dealers transferred 15 million DM to their collaborators in
Turkey.

* On 24 October 1994 the German magazine "Focus" wrote that in the
last 9 years 315 PKK members were involved in drug trafficking around
Europe, 154 of whom were captured in Germany.

* Ralf Brottscheller, the Senator of Interior of Bremen, accused the
PKK of extortion and organized narcotics smuggling ("Focus," 18
September 1995).

* In France, the Aulnay Sous Bois Public Security Units and Paris
Bureau of Combating Narcotics Trafficking conducted an operation which
was completed after long and careful preparations of 18 months. 30
people involved in narcotics trafficking on behalf of the PKK and the
Mafia active in France and Belgium were taken into custody after the
operation (French Press, 4 November 1996).

* The Belgian Gendarmerie raided a camp in Zutendaal/Genk, in which
the PKK militants were being trained, and apprehended 35 people,
including children and some internationally wanted criminals
("Arnhemse Courant," 22 November 1996).

* The administrators of a facade company helping the PKK's activities
in France were taken into custody in Paris (French Press, 25 February
1997).

* The "Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drogues" noted in its monthly
report that the biggest heroin seizure in Hungary to date was made on
December 12, 1996, aboard a Turkish bus belonging to the Toros Line
company. The Turkish traffickers, caught with 42 kg. heroin turned out
to be "Kurds." The report mentions the case of a Romanian citizen who,
upon his arrest with 2 kg. heroin by the Turkish police in Edirne in
September 1995, admitted that he was running for the PKK drugs in one
direction and explosives in the other.

The report also notes that 65 percent of the drugs confiscated by the
Romanian customs officers are found on passenger vehicles and that
"every time Romanian police make a drug haul at a Turkish company,
Kurds are involved" ("The Geopolitical Drug Dispatch", No. 65, March
1997).

* A high level member of the PKK, known as the PKK chief in the
Hannover area, was arrested in Berlin. He had been wanted by the
German police on charges of arson attacks, and damage to private
property. The police found out evidence regarding the PKK's
involvement in illicit labor trafficking ("Berliner Zeitung" 4 April
1997).

* 20 refugees were arrested in a police raid on a refugee hostel which
was discovered to be a PKK base, in Grimma, Bahren. The operation was
conducted jointly by the German police and experts from the Federal
Criminal Department. The police confiscated various fire arms,
thousands of DM and receipts. These immigrants were actively involved
in the activities of the PKK and its facade branches (German Press, 4
April 1997).

* The Bavarian police conducted a series of operations against the PKK
militants in refugee camps, arrested 2, and took into custody 17 of
them (Statement by Straubing Police Directorate dated 17 June 1997).

* The PKK transfers people, weapons and drugs through the FRY (Former
Republic of Yugoslavia) and purchases weapons in return (Croatian
daily "Vjesnik" August 1997).

* The "Focus" magazine remarked on 23 March 1998 that members of the
PKK invested the money laundered from drug trafficking and extortion
in the real estate market in Celle, Germany.

* On August 1, 1998, the Croatian and Slovenian security forces
jointly confiscated 38 kg. of heroin in a vehicle bound for western
Europe. According to the Croatian reports, the shipment of the heroin
was realized by Turkish citizens "who are most probably members of the
PKK" This is consistent with the statements made by Slovenian security
forces who have pointed to a "reasonable suspicion" that a member of
the PKK is involved in the smuggling (Croatian and Slovenian press
reviews, 6 August 1998).

* Four "Kurdish" people were captured with 2.6 kg. heroin, the largest
amount of narcotics ever captured in west Norway. It is thought that
the four people caught were merely couriers and that the trafficking
was carried out by a "Turkish/Kurdish" network (Bergen, 7 August
1998).

* "…The PKK has financed its war against Turkey by extortion and the
sale of heroin, and according to British security service sources it
is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin sold in the European
Union…" (British weekly magazine "The Spectator", 28 November-5
December 1998 issue).


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk9.htm



Reports of Foreign Police and Foreign Officials

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* In January 1990, a PKK member was arrested in Switzerland for
selling drugs on behalf of the PKK. In the same month a 13-year-old
person, also linked to the PKK, was captured in the Netherlands and
was released as being too young to prosecute.

* A Turkish citizen of Kurdish origin, apprehended in France on 22
January 1991, confessed that he had been trading drugs in France on
behalf of the PKK and that the drugs were transported by trucks or
sometimes by tourist vehicles and then distributed to different cities
not only in France but in various other countries in Europe as well.

* After being arrested on 7 March 1991 in France, a "Kurdish" person
confessed that the drugs he was selling belonged to the PKK.

* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" descent, captured with 48 kg.
of heroin in Arnheim in November 1991, was found out to be a PKK
member.

* The German Police reports underline the fact that l,103 kg. of
heroin was seized by the police in 1991 and 400 of 735 suspects
involved in the drug trading incidents were PKK members. This ratio
mounted to 450/735 in 1992 and 300/457 in 1993.

* The US Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics Matters
expressed in its International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(1992) that the two-thirds of the people involved in drug trafficking
incidents in Europe are PKK-oriented.

* An active PKK member working as a truck driver, who was known to
have stood as a candidate in Bonn in the 1992 elections for the PKK's
so-called National Assembly, was seized in Troisdorf, Germany, while
transporting substantial amounts of drugs.

* In 1993, the police seized 200 kg. of heroin in London. Further
investigation revealed that the drug traders were working for the PKK.

* A police operation in Offenbach, Germany on 7 January 1993, led to
the seizure of 5 kilos of heroin. Among the seven people captured by
the police was a person known as the "PKK's accountant."

* As a consequence of the operations conducted by the German police in
Hamburg, Bremen and Bad Bramstad during May-October 1993, 15.7 kg. of
heroin was confiscated and 22 people were apprehended, including PKK
members and supporters. The criminals turned out to have requested
political asylum from the German authorities.

* 15 Turkish citizens with "Kurdish" descent were arrested in
connection with 1.6 kg. heroin seized by the German police in
Recklinghausen, Germany, on 27 October 1993. Among those were the
participants at pro-PKK demonstrations in Turkey.

* A message by the German Interpol dated October 26, 1993, pointed out
that six Turkish citizens with Kurdish origin were arrested on charges
of laundering the proceeds from drug trafficking in the Netherlands,
Spain, Italy and Germany. Large sums of cash, thought to be laundered
money, were captured by the German police.

* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" origin, captured in Caracas,
Venezuela on 10 November 1993, while carrying 3.5 kg. of cocaine,
confessed that she was a PKK courier. This incident is said to prove
the links of the PKK with the drug cartels even in Latin America.

* The NCIS estimated that the 44 percent of 1993 budget of the PKK as
430 million French Francs, came from illicit drug trafficking.

* During a six-week campaign initiated by the Stuttgart city police in
January 1994, 76 people were apprehended, including some who had been
formerly prosecuted in Turkey because of their links with the
terrorist organization.

* On 17 August 1994 the German Criminal Authority informed the Turkish
Security Authorities that a political refugee, resident in Kiel, was
engaged in drug trade and money transfer to the PKK.

* The US Deputy Secretary of State in charge of narcotics, Ambassador
Robert Felbard, answering a question at a press briefing in February
1994 regarding the PKK supervision of drug trafficking in Europe and
the United States, stated that the US had quite a bit of information
about the PKK's involvement in the trafficking of heroin into Europe.

* The Amsterdam police, during an anti-drug operation on 11 December
1994, seized numerous firearms, machine guns, bombs and PKK documents
and arrested several PKK militants.

* The Bavarian Minister of Interior, Günter Beckstein, referring to
the 30 PKK militants captured in Europe during the last two years,
stated that the PKK has taken control of the European narcotics market
(Turkish daily, "Cumhuriyet," 31 July 1995).

* The Director of German Terrorism Research Forum, Rolp Tophoven, has
stated that a large majority of the people arrested on charges of
narcotics smuggling are of "Kurdish" descent, many of whom confess
committing the crime on behalf of the terrorist PKK (Turkish daily,
"Yeni Yüzy›l," 12 November 1995).

* Olivier Foll, another expert on international terrorism, noted that
the PKK members, when apprehended for illegal possession of narcotics,
confess to smuggling drugs for the PKK and exploit the "political"
dimension of the issue as an excuse for their crimes. Mr. Foll
criticized the "Kurdish" policies of some European statesmen who grant
concessions to the PKK (Turkish daily "Yeni Yüzy›l," 12 November
1995).

* During the Sputnik operation of September 18, 1996, the Belgian
police seized 350 million Belgian Francs that were thought to have
been the proceeds from narcotics trafficking. Seven people having ties
with the PKK were apprehended in connection with the crime. The
Sputnik operation also revealed that the MED-TV, the mouthpiece of the
PKK, is involved in PKK's money laundering activities. The MED-TV
representative in Germany was taken into custody as he was unable to
explain the source of the 500 million BF, used in financing the
station. It was later found that he was using revenues from drug
trafficking for financing not only the MED-TV but also the so-called
"Kurdistan Parliament in Exile" (KPE). The Belgian police seized many
firearms in the KPE building they searched.

* In August 1997, the German police conducted a comprehensive
operation against the PKK members in Cologne in which six members of
the PKK were arrested. After the operation, Cologne police officers
issued a statement emphsizing the fact that the PKK is involved in
organized crime including extortion in Germany to finance its acts of
terrorism.

* The Göttingen police of Germany, after a 14-month investigation,
managed to penetrate the drug smuggling network with two "Kurdish"
informers in May 1998 and found out that the revenues from 40 kg. of
heroin marketed were channeled to the PKK.

* The KDP (The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Masud Barzani) forces
discovered extensive narcotics farms in the Gali Pes Agha region of
northern Iraq, captured from the PKK in May 1997.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk10.htm



Turkish Police Reports

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

* A PKK member, captured by the police with 14.5 kg. of heroin on 1
September 1993, confessed that he was acting on behalf of the PKK
abroad, and that he was a drug-smuggler, transferring 30 percent of
the proceeds to the terrorist organization.

* Following the confiscation of 20.3 kg. of heroin in Duisburg,
Germany, two PKK supporters were arrested by the German police. This
triggered a police investigation in Turkey, which led to the seizure
of firearms and munitions in a vehicle owned by the same family in the
city of Mersin on 12 May 1993.

* A PKK militant of Iranian origin confessed that the terrorist
organization has drug production facilities in Iran and that Osman
Öcalan (the brother of Abdullah Öcalan and a leading figure of the
terrorist organization PKK) is in charge of the production of
narcotics which are later marketed mainly in Europe to raise money for
the organization.

* Two PKK militants, arrested with 30 kg. of heroin, expressed that
they were aiming to sell the drugs to provide financial contributions
to the PKK.

* The Turkish Security Forces seized 120 kg. of heroin and 40 kg. of
hemp seeds (cannabis) in a PKK shelter in southeastern Turkey.

* One PKK member, who was put in jail on 3 July 1993 for getting
involved in the terrorist acts of the PKK in Hakkari and released on
20 October 1993, was captured with 36 kg. of heroine, 140 kg. of
precursors and some other drug-producing material.

* Another member of the PKK, sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment,
confessed that he was in charge of establishing the links between the
drug smugglers and the terrorist organization.

* During the operations conducted by the Turkish security forces, two
people, captured with 48 kg. of hashish, were arrested as they were
found out to be involved in narco-trade so as to provide financial
support to the PKK.

* Another Turkish citizen said to be of "Kurdish-origin", caught by
the police in possession of 117 kilos of hashish in Istanbul, was
later found to have participated in the PKK-led attack on the Turkish
Consulate General in Frankfurt on March 1l, 1992.

* One Turkish citizen of "Kurdish-origin" apprehended in July 1994
confessed that he was involved in drug trafficking to raise money for
the PKK. The police, making use of the information he disclosed, were
able to arrest some other members of the terrorist organization.

* On 1 August 1994 a PKK member, apprehended in Diyarbak›r with 2 kg.
of heroin, acknowledged that he was selling drugs for the PKK. He also
informed the police that some PKK members were cultivating drugs and
gave the names of the places where hemp seeds (cannabis) were grown.
In further investigation the police captured 120,000 roots of hemp
seeds in a village named Dibek.

* On 21 August 1994 the Turkish security forces apprehended two people
with 150 kg. of hashish and considerable amounts of hemp seeds and
hashish growing material. The security forces also captured PKK
documents and propaganda material and two machine guns.

* Diyarbak›r Police, conducting an operation against the PKK on 17
July 1994, apprehended three people with 80 kg. of hashish, PKK
documents, a gun and three ERNK seals. These people confessed that the
PKK ordered them to sell the drugs and purchase firearms and food
supplies for the organization. The said people turned out to have
participated in various terror acts such as the rocket attack to and
storming of a police residence in Lice on 29 June, the bomb attack on
the residence of a judge in Diyarbak›r on 16 January 1994, and a bomb
attack on a police patrol car.

* Seven people captured in the city of Cizre on 23 March 1994 with
398.5 kilos of heroin confessed to smuggling narcotics on behalf of
the PKK.

* The security forces have had strong evidence suggesting that a
network composed of PKK militants is involved in drug trading in Zaho,
northern Iraq. The network is known to hand the drugs over to clients
either in Zaho or in Turkey. Therefore, it was not very surprising
that during the operation by the Turkish Armed Forces in northern Iraq
against the PKK, the Turkish army discovered a large farm where the
terrorists cultivated hemp (cannabis). The farm was located near the
PKK's Pirvela Camp in the Bahara valley. The Turkish military officers
announced that the amount of drugs captured during the operation in
northern Iraq reached 4.5 tons.

* In a raid on 7 March 1995 on the residence of a person, suspected by
the police of having contact with the PKK militants, the Turkish
police seized large amounts of drugs, drug precursor chemicals,
firearms and ammunitions.

* Three of the seven people caught with 21.5 kilos of heroin in
Hamburg, Germany, have been found out to have been formerly arrested
in Turkey on charges of PKK membership.

* The two people caught by the police with 20.6 kilos of narcotics in
‹zmir on August 5, 1996, have been found out to be running an
association linked to the PKK in the Netherlands.

* Another PKK sympathizer, who was captured with acetic anhydride, a
heroin precursor chemical, by the Turkish security forces in the city
of Van on March 24, 1998, was found to have been previously arrested
for providing logistic support to the PKK.

* The Turkish security forces have strong evidence that the PKK
militants, settled in the Iranian part of our common border, receive
commissions from the narcotics smugglers called "taxes or donations."


***


The role of the PKK in incidents given above is undeniable, both
because of the documents seized by the security forces and the
backgrounds of the arrested people. Still, in certain Western
countries, the activities of this terrorist organization, are
regrettably being tolerated.

After the prohibition of PKK in France and Germany towards the end of
1993, a wave of optimism emerged in Turkish public opinion that the
rest of the European countries would follow suit by adopting similar
measures. This, however, has not happened to date. Yet, it is clear
that the prohibition of the PKK and its front organizations in
European countries would also be in the interest of these countries.
The PKK is responsible for narcotics trafficking, extortion, robbery,
and illicit arms and human smuggling activities, and thus circumvent
the rule of law and compromises the security and stability of the
countries in which it operates. It is no coincidence that drug
trafficking cases predominantly occur in those countries where the
organization of the PKK is extensive and tolerated.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk11.htm


Is There A "Kurdish Question" in Turkey?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

As the first melting pot and encounter point of many different
civilizations and cultures, present-day Turkey contains a multitude of
ethnic, religious and cultural elements. Turkey is proud of its great
heritage. This centuries-long shared way of life is perfectly
second-nature for the people of Turkey.

Yet, different ethnic identities, including the Kurdish, are
acknowledged and accepted in Turkey. The state does not categorize its
citizens along ethnic lines nor does it impose an ethnic identity on
them. Population censuses in Turkey never count people on the basis of
their ethnic origins. But, this does not prevent an individual citizen
to identify himself or herself in terms of a specific ethnic category.
That is a private affair and ultimately a matter of personal
preference. Public expressions and manifestations of ethnic identity
are prohibited neither by law nor by social custom. Folklore is rich
and colorful and local variations, customs and traditions are
protected and supported.

Turkey is a constitutional state governed by the rule of law.
Democracy rests on a parliamentary system of government, respect for
human rights and on the supremacy of law. Multi-party politics, free
elections, a growing tradition of local government mark the democratic
way of life in Turkey.

Constitutional citizenship is one of the principles upon which the
Turkish state was founded. The Turkish Constitution stipulates that
the State and the Nation are indivisible, and that all citizens
irrespective of their ethnic, racial or religious origin, are equal
before the law.

For historical and cultural reasons, and under stipulations of binding
international treaties, the concept of "minority" applies specifically
to certain groups of non-Moslem citizens. In fact, the social fabric
of Turkey is a unique real life case of the OSCE principle that "not
all ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious differences necessarily
lead to the creation of national minorities". Our citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin are not discriminated against and they feel themselves
to be equal members of the society. Many have risen to the highest
positions in the Republic. They share the same opportunities and the
same destiny as the rest of the population.

Ethnicity is not a factor in the political geography of Turkey. That
is, the predominant majority of the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
descent live in western Turkey, with the greatest concentration being
in Istanbul. Even in eastern and southeastern Turkey, the Turkish
citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin do not constitute a majority. The
unitary structure of the State reflects the equality and togetherness
of different geographic regions of Turkey.

Therefore, it is simply neither understandable nor acceptable for
Turkey to discuss "the respect for social, economic and legitimate
political aspirations of Kurds" as if the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic descent constitute a different and separate community. They are
citizens of a nation that has been sharing for centuries the same
values with respect to language, religion, culture and patriotic
identity, common history and the will for a mutual future.

It is of cardinal importance to differentiate between a militant
organization, which resorts systematically to terrorism as well as all
kinds of organized crime, and the phenomenon of Kurdish ethnicity. It
is evident that our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin are law-abiding
people. Most of them live in western Turkey, drawn by economic
attraction. They are of their own choice integrated into the society
and its economic, social and cultural aspects. In Turkey, citizens of
all ethnic origins can rise to the highest political positions and
ranks such as cabinet ministers and members of parliament. Throughout
the centuries, much mixing has taken place through intermarriages.
Progress in industrial, cultural and social fields, as well as
urbanization, has also contributed to the voluntary and natural
process of integration.

The population in southeast Anatolia, like our citizens in other
regions of the country, participate fully in the political life of
Turkey; they freely make their voices heard in local administrations,
in the municipalities, the Parliament, and the central government
through elected representatives. It is nothing out of the ordinary for
the individuals of different ethnic origins to participate in the
political life of the country. Even the most militant circles concede
the fact that there are no obstacles to social mobility of individuals
from different ethnic origins to any profession or career, whether
public or private.

The fundamental rights and freedoms of all Turkish citizens are
secured by the relevant provisions of the Constitution. However, those
rights have been threatened by the PKK, creating terror among the
populace.

None of our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin, notwithstanding
allegations to the contrary, who publicly or politically asserts
his/her Kurdish ethnic identity risks harassment or persecution.
However, acts or statements made against the "territorial integrity"
of Turkey are subject to legal prosecution under the law. If these
allegations were true, none of the publications in Kurdish whose
contents are full of assertions of Kurdish ethnic identity would have
been tolerated by the authorities.

In the same vein, Turkey is often accused of refusing to negotiate
with the terrorist organization PKK. These accusations contradict the
fundamental rules of international law. Negotiating with a terrorist
organization, responsible for thousands of murders, would be
tantamount to justifying and encouraging terrorism.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk12.htm



Is the Use of Kurdish Banned in Turkey ?

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Contrary to the allegations of some biased quarters, there is no
restriction on the use of languages in Turkey. Presently, there are
many private radio-TV stations broadcasting and numerous books and
journals published both in Turkish and in various dialects of
"Kurdish" throughout the country. It should be mentioned here that
"Kurdish" can be hardly depicted as "a single language" linguistically
or socially. Many scholars point out the fact that there are many
different local languages and dialects used in southeastern Turkey
such as Zaza and Kirmanchi which are only as close to each other as
French and English. These local languages and dialects are so
dissimilar that people living in one village cannot even communicate
with others from a neighboring village. As a result, Turkish has
become the sole medium of communication in the region. It is ironic
that Turkish is also used in PKK's militant training camps and in the
communication between its headquarters and terrorists as their common
language.

The official language of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish, but
Armenian, Ladino, Greek, the different dialects of "Kurdish", etc. are
spoken freely in daily life. There is only one official language in
the country. However, in this respect Turkey does not constitute a
unique and exceptional case either in Europe or among other democratic
countries.

It should also be underlined that expressions of ethnic identity such
as the use of local languages are viewed as private domain matters.
Thus, they are not the subject of law and are therefore not regulated
by the state. The Turkish language is the language of the Republic of
Turkey and is consequently the only formal language of education and
instruction. The same is true in most democracies. Though it is
possible to help promote them, it is neither realistic nor feasible to
make local tongues official languages of the State.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------





http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk13.htm


Socio-Economic Development of Southeastern Turkey and the
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Atatürk Dam is the largest component of the Southeastern Anatolia
Project (GAP).

The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), consisting of a complex
system of dams, waterworks, irrigation and hydraulic energy network is
a colossal investment of Turkey, the biggest regional initiative ever
attempted in Turkey. It aims at changing the whole complexion of the
arid geography and consequently, the social and economic backwardness
of southeastern Anatolia. The Turkish Government has always believed
that one of the best tools in the struggle against terrorism is
economic development. It is no accident that the region in which the
PKK operates is also the least economically developed part of Turkey.
The Turkish Government is determined to rectify that.

It is a fact that there are socio-economic regional imbalances in
Turkey as in every developing, even some developed countries. Rough
geographic and climatic conditions of southeastern Turkey are the main
factors in this imbalance. Terrorism and economic backwardness of the
region affect all our citizens indiscriminately. Despite many
governmental incentives and low taxation policies, the private sector
had in the past been reluctant to invest in the region, mainly due to
security concerns. Public sector has taken the place of the private
sector and many investments have already been realized by the State.
"GAP" is the best example of that. Government investment in this
region is much higher than the amount of taxes collected there. "GAP"
is a gigantic economic step forward which will change the destiny of
the region. Agricultural production of Turkey will rise by several
folds when this project, which is both energy and irrigation oriented,
is completed. Yet, its important impact is not expected only on
agricultural production, but also on industry, construction, services,
as well as on the Gross Regional Product and employment. When the
project is completed, per capita income will increase three times, and
3.3 million jobs will be created.

The Southeastern Anatolia Project constitutes an integrated project
which contributes significantly to the realization of national targets
for the utilization of development potentials, self-induced economic
growth, social stability and enhancement of export possibilities, and
at the same time aims at the promotion of the principle of sustainable
human development; thus, human development is the core of sustainable
development in the "GAP" region. In this context, the "GAP Social
Action Plan" consists of the basic policies, targets, strategies and
implementation measures for ensuring the social development of the
region through a human-centered approach emphasizing sustainability of
the development. This people-centered development aims to remove the
gap between the project area and the more developed regions in Turkey
and to promote equitable development.

This ambitious socio-economic development drive also explains why the
PKK has been targeting civilians as well as economic and social
projects. PKK's aim is both to terrorize the local population and to
keep the region economically and socially backward so as to recruit
more militants into its own ranks. However, this is being reversed as
the GAP began to bear its fruits. For example, although the so-called
head of the PKK is from ?anl›urfa, there has never been a terrorist
act there, because it is an economically powerful settlement. The
state of emergency still has to continue in some of the provinces of
southeastern Turkey. It is the direct consequence and explicit proof
of the PKK terrorism in the region. It is of utmost importance for
Turkey to augment the allocation of human and financial resources for
the socio-economic development of this region. The precondition to
achieve this task is the eradication of the PKK terrorist
organization.

Eradication of terrorism will not only put an end to the deliberate
devastation by terrorists of the underdeveloped regions of Turkey, but
also release important resources for developmental activity in those
very regions. While terrorism might be viewed as a consequence of
certain underlying causes, it is also incontestably true that
terrorism is itself the main reason of poverty and underdevelopment of
those areas where it is perpetrated.

In sum, our citizens of all ethnic origins -Turkish, Kurdish and
others- living together for more than ten centuries in Turkey have
created a society of patriotic citizens sharing common values. They
established their own nation-state, the Turkish Republic, following
the War of Independence. Ethnic descent is not considered a cause of
discrimination or privilege just as in all modern nation States on the
globe.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ali Asker
2004-08-31 18:23:38 UTC
Permalink
So, if you repeat the same thing over and over again poeple would
blieve you! Is that the idea?

hahahahahahaha......

Stupid Turkish MORON!!!!!!!!!!
Post by mark rivers
organization, a full-time, professional and unconditional hater and
murderer of innocent citizens of the Democratic Republic of Turkey,
posts an anti-Turkish hate propaganda fabricated by mouth-pieces of
the same PKK/KADEK terrorist organization which, with the support of
the enemies of Turkey (Syria, Belgium, Sweden, Netherlands,
Switzerland, Denmark, France, Greece and others) and with the income
it obtained from major illegal drug trafficking to Europe, robberies,
extortions, etc. murdered nearly 40 thousands innocent human beings in
Turkey and ruined the health and property of many thousands of others
to destroy democratic goverment of the Republic of Turkey and
establish a marxist, lennist, communist PKK/KADEK dictatorship in
South East Turkey.This is against the laws of all countries in the
World including Turkey. Any country, as well as Turkey, will defend
itself against such terrorism as a most legitimate and legal right.
To hell with you all PKK/KADEK terrorists !!!!!
PKK/KADEK is not a democratically elected represantative of Kurdish
citizens of Turkey. Democratically elected represantatives of the
citizens of Turkey of Kurdish descend are in the goverment as MPs,
ministers, PMs, presidents, judjes, etc., certainly not as terrorists
murdering innocent human beings. Plus, all citizens of Turkey of
Kurdish descend, like everybody else, are serving their country as
soldiers, officers and generals in the military, police officers,
lawyers and judges in the law enforcement organizations, pursuing
their lives as business man and woman, professional careers in the
private business and goverment institutions. And, none of them feel
they have to murder innocent human beings "to defend themselves". All
citizen of Turkey, regardless of race, language, religion, gender,
etc., have their undeniable right and freedom under the law to defend
their rights and freedoms, pursue solutions for the problems they
think they have by only legal, peacefull and democratic ways and
means, definitely not "whatever means is possible" and certainly not
by terrorism.
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk3.htm
What is the PKK/KADEK ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The PKK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan Workers' Party"), formed
in 1978 by Abdullah Öcalan, is the most notorious terror organization
in the world. It has been waging a vicious campaign of terror against
Turkey since 1984 with the external support of certain states and
circles whose aim is to destabilize Turkey.
The PKK was identified as one of the 30 main terrorist organizations
in the world by the US Secretary of State in October 1997, and it was
also described in the same way in US State Department "Patterns of
Global Terrorism" reports.
PKK's terrorist activities have resulted, to date, in the death of
thousands of people, including women, the elderly, children and in
many instances even infants. The PKK has also murdered over one
hundred school teachers, who became inevitable targets of the
terrorists since it was judged that PKK's subversive views could be
most easily imposed on the uneducated and the ignorant. Lists giving
the figures of ordinary individuals and public servants, ruthlessly
killed or maimed by the PKK terrorists, are in annex.
The PKK has employed murder, intimidation, kidnapping and destruction
to achieve its nefarious objectives. It targets ordinary people,
because it aims to subjugate the local population in southeastern
Turkey into supporting its evil deeds. The PKK has attacked the entire
inhabitants of villages in southeast Anatolia. These attacks are also
designed to make the region uninhabitable. The PKK destroys schools,
sets forests on fire, blows up railways and bridges, plants mines on
roads, burns down construction machinery, and demolishes health
centers. A list containing the figures of material damage caused by
PKK's terrorist attacks is also in annex.
In response, the authorities trained the villagers to defend
themselves and also moved some people to locations where they would be
safer. These two measures, intended to protect the local population
against terrorism, have been at the center of a misinformation
campaign by the PKK and its sympathizers.
The PKK indiscriminately murders the very people on whose behalf it
purports to act : Turkish citizens of Kurdish origin. Ironically, the
PKK regards Masud Barzani's Kurdish Democratic Party and Jalal
Talabani's Patriotic Union of Kurdistan, the two main Kurdish
groupings in northern Iraq, as its adversaries.
Due to its ability to strike Turkey from Syria and (after the 1991
Gulf War) northern Iraq, the PKK proved for some time a serious threat
to law and order and claimed many victims. Following its operations
against PKK facilities in northern Iraq Turkey restored law and order
throughout the southeastern provinces.
The PKK has been supported and sheltered by some of Turkey's
neighbors, as well as by some others outside the region. Syria and
Greece are the principal countries that have been supporting the PKK
for years. However, with the signing of Adana memorandum on October
20, 1998, the Syrian connection has been broken. Syrian authorities
have promised not to support terrorist activities against Turkey and
taken some steps in this direction. Turkey closely monitors Syrian
compliance with the Adana agreement. Yet, Greece, a NATO ally, backs
the PKK and its affiliates by every means at its disposal. Confessions
and testimonies of dozens of PKK militants arrested in Turkey reveal
that Greek support to PKK terrorism goes much beyond than what was
generally estimated. Most recently, revelations made by the PKK member
Fethi Demir and by ?emdin Sak?k, PKK's "second man" captured in
northern Iraq, have helped to confirm concretely the continuing Greek
support to the PKK. The statement made by Greek Premier Simitis on
November 26, 1998, leaves no room for doubt about the position of
Greece vis-a-vis the PKK : "the PKK is an organization fighting for
the rights of the Kurdish minority and using various means to reach
this end." Can there be a more explicit approval of PKK terrorism?
There is of course other evidence and documentation concerning Greek
support to PKK terrorism.
The PKK terrorist organization, among others, employs the following
a) Indiscriminate terror against the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin mainly in southeastern Turkey. Targets included
children, women, and the elderly. In some places PKK terrorists have
wiped out isolated, dispersed settlements and hamlets.
The aim is to force the local population into submission, to make them
provide sanctuary.
b) Indiscriminate terror against non-Kurdish population. The purpose
is to discredit the state institutions and to cause instability.
c) Terror against selected targets.
- Assassination of well known personalities, judicial, law enforcement
and security personnel.
- Assassination of state functionaries that provide services to the
local population in southeastern Turkey (civil servants, teachers,
health personnel, technical personnel, etc.).
- Assassination of village guardsmen and their families.
- Attacks on and occupation of official missions of Turkey abroad
(diplomatic, consular, commercial, tourism, etc.) as well as
headquarters or branch offices of semi-official institutions (Turkish
Airlines offices, banks, etc.).Attacks and acts of arson against the
houses, business facilities, associations and mosques of the Turkish
community living in western Europe, mainly in Germany. These acts of
terror are mostly carried out through proxies and front organizations
that are permitted by the authorities of the host countries to operate
in those states.
d) Terror within the ranks of the PKK, against informants and
repentant militants. Over the years, Öcalan has ordered the killing of
numerous PKK defectors and potential rivals. In the past decade, the
PKK has conducted assassinations, kidnappings and acts of arson in
Western Europe against former PKK members and defectors.
Assassinations of PKK defectors occurred in Sweden in 1984 and 1985;
in Denmark in 1985; in the Netherlands in 1987 and 1989; in Germany in
1986, 1987, and 1988.
e) Wider hit and run tactics against border posts and military
patrols.
f) Terrorist attacks against industrial infrastructure, oil
facilities, social facilities, and tourist sites with the aim of
weakening the Turkish economy and tarnishing its image. As part of
these terror acts, the PKK bombed passenger trains, ferryboats, and
buses. Several of these attacks resulted in civilian casualties. In
1993 and 1994 it also staged a series of kidnappings of foreigners in
southeastern Turkey to frighten away tourists and to embarrass the
Turkish government.
g) The head of the terrorist organization PKK has advocated and
ordered the use of suicide bombings against Turkish targets that
resulted in the deaths of security personnel and civilians, and
injuries to many more.
Obviously, such an enterprise of crime and violence like the PKK
requires colossal human and financial resources. As there are no
legitimate ways or means to obtain the required resources, PKK's only
option is to resort to illegal and illegitimate methods. Hence, the
PKK is heavily engaged in organized crime activities, including
extortion, drug trafficking, arms smuggling, human smuggling (illegal
immigration), and abduction of children. Such racketeering takes place
particularly in western Europe.
The PKK has been carrying out its activities abroad through its front
organization ERNK (Kurdish acronym for the "Kurdistan National
Liberation Front"), the so-called "Kurdistan Parliament in Exile", its
mouthpiece MED TV, and through other affiliated offices, centers and
associations.
Through these front establishments, the PKK organizes and carries out
its illegal activities. It also uses them to make its propaganda so as
to influence and mislead the public opinion in west European countries
for obtaining popular support to its subversive ends.
The abduction of children and youngsters in some European countries by
these front organizations deserves special mention. According to
police reports and press articles in several west European countries,
the PKK recently organized kidnappings of children, of 14-17 years of
age, in Varmland/Sweden through the ERNK, and in Celle/Germany through
"Kurdish Information Bureaus", or "Kurdish Culture Centers". The
statements of some of the abducted children, as well as press and
police reports reveal that the PKK kidnapped these youngsters, took
them to its camps, located in some other west European countries, and
forced them into training as terrorist militants.
The Turkish authorities spared no effort in drawing the attention of
the west European countries to such criminal and illegal activities of
the PKK, but unfortunately their calls to prevent these activities
usually fell on deaf ears. The complaints of the children's families,
however, attracted the attention of the public and thus created a
strong reaction towards what the PKK and its affiliates have in fact
been doing for years. The police in Sweden and Germany are now
investigating the matter.
Terrorism constitutes today one of the most serious violations of
human rights, in particular the fundamental right to life. By
murdering thousands of people, the PKK has violated the right to life.
Therefore, all the PKK terrorists, including their head Öcalan, must
answer in the court of law for their crimes.
All societies threatened by terrorism have the right to take
appropriate measures to protect themselves from violence and to
eradicate terrorism. Turkey's fight against the PKK terrorism is of
this nature and aims not only to maintain security and to protect its
citizens, but also to pave the way for economic and social development
in the regions where this is needed most. This fight against terrorism
observes democratic principles and the rule of law, with great care
being given to respect the rights of innocent civilians.
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Who is Abdullah Öcalan ?
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Abdullah Öcalan was born in the province of Sanliurfa in 1949. He
speaks Turkish and has only a poor grasp of some Kurdish dialects. He
had a conventional education and his original wish was to be an
officer in the Turkish Army. He failed the entrance examination for
the military academy. He did, however, gain admission in 1971 to the
Ankara University Political Sciences Faculty. There, he joined the
underground movements trying to overthrow Turkey's parliamentary
system. He was expelled from the university for non-attendance and his
illegal activities.
The cell of terrorists which he controlled soon broke links with other
groups. It was known for its use of extreme violence and the "Apocu's"
(Followers of Abdullah Öcalan), as the PKK was called in its early
days, had a special trademark: they hacked off the noses of their
opponents. In the late 1970's, Öcalan collaborated closely with the
Soviet Union and with Syria which were attempting to create political
turmoil in Turkey. In 1980, Öcalan fled to Syria. He began to use
Syrian facilities, including camps in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanese
territory under Syrian control, to train terrorist groups for
cross-border terrorist attacks against targets in Turkey. He started
to inject an ethnic dimension to his terrorist activities, though this
usually had to be imposed on local populations by violent means,
including the kidnapping young men at gun point and then forcing them
to undergo indoctrination and join his movement. In August 1984,
Öcalan's terrorist groups began attacking Turkish police stations and
similar targets in the southeastern provinces north of the border with
Syria and Iraq.
The PKK operates along the familiar lines of traditional communist
parties and carries out terrorist activities under the rigid direction
of its Central Committee. Both its "political" and "military" wings
are controlled directly by Öcalan. As its sole head, Öcalan, has
callously masterminded thousands of PKK's terrorist activities against
Turkey and its people. As such, he has been responsible for thousands
of deaths, kidnappings, mutilations and attacks on innocent people
during his long years as a professional terrorist and murderer.
In October 1998, Turkey warned Syria that it would take action unless
it ceased its support for Öcalan and PKK terrorism. It formally
requested the extradition of Öcalan to Turkey. As a result, Öcalan was
compelled to leave Syria where he had been given shelter for almost
two decades. Furthermore, by an agreement signed between the two
countries on October 20, 1998 in Adana/Turkey, the Syrian Government
for the first time designated the PKK as a terrorist organization, and
pledged not to allow the presence and the activities of the PKK on its
territory. Later, Öcalan was forced to leave Moscow, where he had
escaped from Syria, following political and diplomatic contacts
between Turkey and the Russian Federation.
Öcalan was apprehended in Rome while trying to illegally enter Italy
with a false passport on November 12, 1998. As the British Government
put it, Öcalan's arrest was "a significant advance in the
international community's fight against terrorism."
Öcalan is not only a terrorist but also a common criminal, being
sought by the Turkish courts under charges of homicide and incitement
to homicide. There is thus a red corner bulletin for him issued by the
Interpol. In accordance with a court decision given in 1990, Germany
also had an arrest warrant on Öcalan again for homicide and incitement
to homicide.
All democratic, law-abiding countries as well as international
institutions are obligated to take a consistent and firm stance in
combating terrorism and bringing terrorists to justice. Under
obligations and commitments within the framework of the United
Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the NATO, and the EU, no
country or government can provide terrorists with safe-haven or evade
its responsibilities in the efforts to eliminate terrorism. Therefore,
Öcalan should never be granted political asylum anywhere and he has to
be extradited to Turkey to face trial for his crimes against Turkish
citizens.
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PKK's Involvement in Organized Crimes
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The PKK engages in organized crimes such as drug trafficking and arms
smuggling, extortion, human smuggling, abduction of children and money
laundering in an attempt to recruit militants and to obtain financial
resources needed to carry out its terrorist activities.
The "Sputnik Operation" conducted in a coordinated fashion in some
European countries in September 1996 exposed PKK's links with
organized crime and money laundering activities.
On the other hand, it is known that the PKK, together with other
organized crime gangs, is also behind the recent wave of illegal
immigration to Italy. PKK's objective is to create international
pressure and antipathy against Turkey.
Moreover, the PKK plays an important role in drug trafficking which
constitutes one of the most evil crimes of our age. The British weekly
magazine "The Spectator" underlined this fact in its 28 November-5
December 1998 issue by saying that "?According to the British security
services sources the PKK is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin
sold in the European Union?" .
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Drug Trafficking and Terrorist Organizations
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All terrorist organizations need to raise funds to sustain their
violent activities and resort to illegal means to finance their
crimes. Drug trafficking comes at the top of this list of illegal
money raising activities, followed by robbery, extortion, kidnapping,
blackmailing and arms smuggling.
In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that terrorism and
drug trafficking are intertwined. The terms "narco-terrorism" and
"narco-terrorists" have started to gain circulation in describing the
link between terrorist organizations and narcotics smugglers. This
fact is illustrated by certain international documents. The UN
Convention Against Illicit Traffic In Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic
Substances (1988) refers to the relationship between illicit drug
traffic and other organized criminal activities which undermine the
stability, security and legitimacy of sovereign states.
Paragraph 5 of the UN International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)'s
1992 report points out that "illicit cultivation of narcotic plants
and illicit trafficking in drugs continue to be a threat to the
political, economic and social stability of several countries. Links
appear to exist between illicit cultivation and drug trafficking and
the activities of subversive organizations in some countries."
The 1993 INCB report draws attention to the organic connections
between drug cartels and terrorist organizations, and also to the
globalization of drug smuggling. The successive INCB reports point out
that these drug cartels concentrate their activities in ethnically and
economically troubled regions of the world. It is no coincidence that
terrorist organizations thrive in the very same regions.
The Vienna Declaration and Program of Action adopted at the World
Conference on Human Rights (25 June 1993) stresses that "the acts,
methods and practices of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations
as well as linkage in some countries to drug trafficking are
activities aimed at the destruction of human rights, fundamental
freedoms and democracy, threatening territorial integrity, security of
states and destabilizing legitimately constituted governments, and the
international community should take the necessary steps to enhance
cooperation to prevent and combat terrorism."
The Final Communiqué of the Council of Europe Pompidou Group 2nd
Pan-European Ministerial Conference (Strasbourg, 4 February 1994)
underlines the fact that "considering the continuous increase in and
the spread of drug trafficking incidents, the involvement of violent
organizations in such activities constitute a serious threat to the
contemporary society" (Art.9), and thus, "it is vital for the security
forces to combat terrorism effectively" (Art.l5).
The UN Declaration on Measures to Eliminate International Terrorism
adopted at the 49th session of the General Assembly, underlines the
concern by the international community at the growing and dangerous
links between terrorists groups, drug traffickers and their
paramilitary gangs which have resorted to all types of violence, thus
endangering the constitutional order of States and violating basic
human rights. This Declaration also emphasizes the desirability of
closer cooperation and coordination among States in combating crimes
closely connected with terrorism, including drug trafficking, unlawful
arms trade, money laundering and smuggling of nuclear and other
potentially deadly materials.
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Foreign Press Reports
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* In January 1992, the Bremen Police arrested a "Kurd" selling drugs.
The police found a bunch of keys in his pocket, which belonged to an
apartment where "Kurds" lived. Hanging on the walls of the said
apartment were posters of the PKK and its leader Abdullah Öcalan. The
police also found some clues suggesting that the PKK finances its
armed struggle by the heroin trade (SAT-1 TV, 24 Hours, 6 January
1992).
* In 1992, a total number of 2,069 drug addicts died in Germany. In
the same year, the German police apprehended some children aged 10-12,
coming from southeastern Turkey and selling drugs in Hamburg. A child
of 8 carrying a firearm was also arrested. All these children
confessed that the PKK was using them to sell drugs, since they did
not have penal responsibility. The police seized 30 kg. of heroin from
a "Kurd" who was said to have transferred DM 150,000 to his partners.
The estimated figure the PKK earns from the narcotics trade is more
than 56 million DM (VOX TV ; Germany, 12 February 1993).
* In 1993, more than 50 PKK members were arrested by the Essen Police
of Germany. The Federal Criminal Department in Wiesbaden found out
that the PKK was organizing drug trafficking in Germany and the
narcotics trade in Hamburg, Bremen, Frankfurt and Essen was under the
control of the PKK (German Daily "NRZ," 30 March 1993).
* The Hamburg Criminal Police arrested a band of Kurdish drug
smugglers on 15 September 1993. 11-year-old children, who were also
arrested with the other members of the band, later confessed to the
police that the PKK illegally brought them from Turkey to Germany in
order to make them sell drugs for the organization (Hamburg Local TV
Broadcast, 15 September 1993).
* Three years of intensive police investigation by the Slagelse Police
and the Narcotics Section of the National Police Force in Denmark
resulted in the solution of several armed robberies whose spoils were
used to finance narcotics purchases. The police captured a Danish
person, who had links with two Turkish narcotics kingpins living in
Denmark. During the trial the close relationship between these people
and the PKK was proven. The superintendent Niels Bech of the National
Police Force expressed that large parts of the profits from the
narcotics sales in Denmark have returned to Turkey. In one case DDK
140,000 were sent to Turkey and kilos of heroin was sent to Europe in
return (Danish Daily, "Berlingske Tidende," 31 October 1993).
* Two young PKK members (aged 14 and 16) were caught by the police
selling drugs at the Trabrennbahn Train Station near Wandsbeck on 26
September 1994 ("Bild-Hamburg" 28 September 1994).
* On 5-6 October 1994 the "Bild" reported that narcotics were being
distributed from Jork in Alten Land to Northern Germany and that the
Kurdish dealers transferred 15 million DM to their collaborators in
Turkey.
* On 24 October 1994 the German magazine "Focus" wrote that in the
last 9 years 315 PKK members were involved in drug trafficking around
Europe, 154 of whom were captured in Germany.
* Ralf Brottscheller, the Senator of Interior of Bremen, accused the
PKK of extortion and organized narcotics smuggling ("Focus," 18
September 1995).
* In France, the Aulnay Sous Bois Public Security Units and Paris
Bureau of Combating Narcotics Trafficking conducted an operation which
was completed after long and careful preparations of 18 months. 30
people involved in narcotics trafficking on behalf of the PKK and the
Mafia active in France and Belgium were taken into custody after the
operation (French Press, 4 November 1996).
* The Belgian Gendarmerie raided a camp in Zutendaal/Genk, in which
the PKK militants were being trained, and apprehended 35 people,
including children and some internationally wanted criminals
("Arnhemse Courant," 22 November 1996).
* The administrators of a facade company helping the PKK's activities
in France were taken into custody in Paris (French Press, 25 February
1997).
* The "Observatoire Geopolitique Des Drogues" noted in its monthly
report that the biggest heroin seizure in Hungary to date was made on
December 12, 1996, aboard a Turkish bus belonging to the Toros Line
company. The Turkish traffickers, caught with 42 kg. heroin turned out
to be "Kurds." The report mentions the case of a Romanian citizen who,
upon his arrest with 2 kg. heroin by the Turkish police in Edirne in
September 1995, admitted that he was running for the PKK drugs in one
direction and explosives in the other.
The report also notes that 65 percent of the drugs confiscated by the
Romanian customs officers are found on passenger vehicles and that
"every time Romanian police make a drug haul at a Turkish company,
Kurds are involved" ("The Geopolitical Drug Dispatch", No. 65, March
1997).
* A high level member of the PKK, known as the PKK chief in the
Hannover area, was arrested in Berlin. He had been wanted by the
German police on charges of arson attacks, and damage to private
property. The police found out evidence regarding the PKK's
involvement in illicit labor trafficking ("Berliner Zeitung" 4 April
1997).
* 20 refugees were arrested in a police raid on a refugee hostel which
was discovered to be a PKK base, in Grimma, Bahren. The operation was
conducted jointly by the German police and experts from the Federal
Criminal Department. The police confiscated various fire arms,
thousands of DM and receipts. These immigrants were actively involved
in the activities of the PKK and its facade branches (German Press, 4
April 1997).
* The Bavarian police conducted a series of operations against the PKK
militants in refugee camps, arrested 2, and took into custody 17 of
them (Statement by Straubing Police Directorate dated 17 June 1997).
* The PKK transfers people, weapons and drugs through the FRY (Former
Republic of Yugoslavia) and purchases weapons in return (Croatian
daily "Vjesnik" August 1997).
* The "Focus" magazine remarked on 23 March 1998 that members of the
PKK invested the money laundered from drug trafficking and extortion
in the real estate market in Celle, Germany.
* On August 1, 1998, the Croatian and Slovenian security forces
jointly confiscated 38 kg. of heroin in a vehicle bound for western
Europe. According to the Croatian reports, the shipment of the heroin
was realized by Turkish citizens "who are most probably members of the
PKK" This is consistent with the statements made by Slovenian security
forces who have pointed to a "reasonable suspicion" that a member of
the PKK is involved in the smuggling (Croatian and Slovenian press
reviews, 6 August 1998).
* Four "Kurdish" people were captured with 2.6 kg. heroin, the largest
amount of narcotics ever captured in west Norway. It is thought that
the four people caught were merely couriers and that the trafficking
was carried out by a "Turkish/Kurdish" network (Bergen, 7 August
1998).
* "?The PKK has financed its war against Turkey by extortion and the
sale of heroin, and according to British security service sources it
is responsible for 40 percent of the heroin sold in the European
Union?" (British weekly magazine "The Spectator", 28 November-5
December 1998 issue).
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Reports of Foreign Police and Foreign Officials
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* In January 1990, a PKK member was arrested in Switzerland for
selling drugs on behalf of the PKK. In the same month a 13-year-old
person, also linked to the PKK, was captured in the Netherlands and
was released as being too young to prosecute.
* A Turkish citizen of Kurdish origin, apprehended in France on 22
January 1991, confessed that he had been trading drugs in France on
behalf of the PKK and that the drugs were transported by trucks or
sometimes by tourist vehicles and then distributed to different cities
not only in France but in various other countries in Europe as well.
* After being arrested on 7 March 1991 in France, a "Kurdish" person
confessed that the drugs he was selling belonged to the PKK.
* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" descent, captured with 48 kg.
of heroin in Arnheim in November 1991, was found out to be a PKK
member.
* The German Police reports underline the fact that l,103 kg. of
heroin was seized by the police in 1991 and 400 of 735 suspects
involved in the drug trading incidents were PKK members. This ratio
mounted to 450/735 in 1992 and 300/457 in 1993.
* The US Department of State Bureau of International Narcotics Matters
expressed in its International Narcotics Control Strategy Report
(1992) that the two-thirds of the people involved in drug trafficking
incidents in Europe are PKK-oriented.
* An active PKK member working as a truck driver, who was known to
have stood as a candidate in Bonn in the 1992 elections for the PKK's
so-called National Assembly, was seized in Troisdorf, Germany, while
transporting substantial amounts of drugs.
* In 1993, the police seized 200 kg. of heroin in London. Further
investigation revealed that the drug traders were working for the PKK.
* A police operation in Offenbach, Germany on 7 January 1993, led to
the seizure of 5 kilos of heroin. Among the seven people captured by
the police was a person known as the "PKK's accountant."
* As a consequence of the operations conducted by the German police in
Hamburg, Bremen and Bad Bramstad during May-October 1993, 15.7 kg. of
heroin was confiscated and 22 people were apprehended, including PKK
members and supporters. The criminals turned out to have requested
political asylum from the German authorities.
* 15 Turkish citizens with "Kurdish" descent were arrested in
connection with 1.6 kg. heroin seized by the German police in
Recklinghausen, Germany, on 27 October 1993. Among those were the
participants at pro-PKK demonstrations in Turkey.
* A message by the German Interpol dated October 26, 1993, pointed out
that six Turkish citizens with Kurdish origin were arrested on charges
of laundering the proceeds from drug trafficking in the Netherlands,
Spain, Italy and Germany. Large sums of cash, thought to be laundered
money, were captured by the German police.
* Another Turkish citizen of "Kurdish" origin, captured in Caracas,
Venezuela on 10 November 1993, while carrying 3.5 kg. of cocaine,
confessed that she was a PKK courier. This incident is said to prove
the links of the PKK with the drug cartels even in Latin America.
* The NCIS estimated that the 44 percent of 1993 budget of the PKK as
430 million French Francs, came from illicit drug trafficking.
* During a six-week campaign initiated by the Stuttgart city police in
January 1994, 76 people were apprehended, including some who had been
formerly prosecuted in Turkey because of their links with the
terrorist organization.
* On 17 August 1994 the German Criminal Authority informed the Turkish
Security Authorities that a political refugee, resident in Kiel, was
engaged in drug trade and money transfer to the PKK.
* The US Deputy Secretary of State in charge of narcotics, Ambassador
Robert Felbard, answering a question at a press briefing in February
1994 regarding the PKK supervision of drug trafficking in Europe and
the United States, stated that the US had quite a bit of information
about the PKK's involvement in the trafficking of heroin into Europe.
* The Amsterdam police, during an anti-drug operation on 11 December
1994, seized numerous firearms, machine guns, bombs and PKK documents
and arrested several PKK militants.
* The Bavarian Minister of Interior, Günter Beckstein, referring to
the 30 PKK militants captured in Europe during the last two years,
stated that the PKK has taken control of the European narcotics market
(Turkish daily, "Cumhuriyet," 31 July 1995).
* The Director of German Terrorism Research Forum, Rolp Tophoven, has
stated that a large majority of the people arrested on charges of
narcotics smuggling are of "Kurdish" descent, many of whom confess
committing the crime on behalf of the terrorist PKK (Turkish daily,
"Yeni Yüzy?l," 12 November 1995).
* Olivier Foll, another expert on international terrorism, noted that
the PKK members, when apprehended for illegal possession of narcotics,
confess to smuggling drugs for the PKK and exploit the "political"
dimension of the issue as an excuse for their crimes. Mr. Foll
criticized the "Kurdish" policies of some European statesmen who grant
concessions to the PKK (Turkish daily "Yeni Yüzy?l," 12 November
1995).
* During the Sputnik operation of September 18, 1996, the Belgian
police seized 350 million Belgian Francs that were thought to have
been the proceeds from narcotics trafficking. Seven people having ties
with the PKK were apprehended in connection with the crime. The
Sputnik operation also revealed that the MED-TV, the mouthpiece of the
PKK, is involved in PKK's money laundering activities. The MED-TV
representative in Germany was taken into custody as he was unable to
explain the source of the 500 million BF, used in financing the
station. It was later found that he was using revenues from drug
trafficking for financing not only the MED-TV but also the so-called
"Kurdistan Parliament in Exile" (KPE). The Belgian police seized many
firearms in the KPE building they searched.
* In August 1997, the German police conducted a comprehensive
operation against the PKK members in Cologne in which six members of
the PKK were arrested. After the operation, Cologne police officers
issued a statement emphsizing the fact that the PKK is involved in
organized crime including extortion in Germany to finance its acts of
terrorism.
* The Göttingen police of Germany, after a 14-month investigation,
managed to penetrate the drug smuggling network with two "Kurdish"
informers in May 1998 and found out that the revenues from 40 kg. of
heroin marketed were channeled to the PKK.
* The KDP (The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Masud Barzani) forces
discovered extensive narcotics farms in the Gali Pes Agha region of
northern Iraq, captured from the PKK in May 1997.
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Turkish Police Reports
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* A PKK member, captured by the police with 14.5 kg. of heroin on 1
September 1993, confessed that he was acting on behalf of the PKK
abroad, and that he was a drug-smuggler, transferring 30 percent of
the proceeds to the terrorist organization.
* Following the confiscation of 20.3 kg. of heroin in Duisburg,
Germany, two PKK supporters were arrested by the German police. This
triggered a police investigation in Turkey, which led to the seizure
of firearms and munitions in a vehicle owned by the same family in the
city of Mersin on 12 May 1993.
* A PKK militant of Iranian origin confessed that the terrorist
organization has drug production facilities in Iran and that Osman
Öcalan (the brother of Abdullah Öcalan and a leading figure of the
terrorist organization PKK) is in charge of the production of
narcotics which are later marketed mainly in Europe to raise money for
the organization.
* Two PKK militants, arrested with 30 kg. of heroin, expressed that
they were aiming to sell the drugs to provide financial contributions
to the PKK.
* The Turkish Security Forces seized 120 kg. of heroin and 40 kg. of
hemp seeds (cannabis) in a PKK shelter in southeastern Turkey.
* One PKK member, who was put in jail on 3 July 1993 for getting
involved in the terrorist acts of the PKK in Hakkari and released on
20 October 1993, was captured with 36 kg. of heroine, 140 kg. of
precursors and some other drug-producing material.
* Another member of the PKK, sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment,
confessed that he was in charge of establishing the links between the
drug smugglers and the terrorist organization.
* During the operations conducted by the Turkish security forces, two
people, captured with 48 kg. of hashish, were arrested as they were
found out to be involved in narco-trade so as to provide financial
support to the PKK.
* Another Turkish citizen said to be of "Kurdish-origin", caught by
the police in possession of 117 kilos of hashish in Istanbul, was
later found to have participated in the PKK-led attack on the Turkish
Consulate General in Frankfurt on March 1l, 1992.
* One Turkish citizen of "Kurdish-origin" apprehended in July 1994
confessed that he was involved in drug trafficking to raise money for
the PKK. The police, making use of the information he disclosed, were
able to arrest some other members of the terrorist organization.
* On 1 August 1994 a PKK member, apprehended in Diyarbak?r with 2 kg.
of heroin, acknowledged that he was selling drugs for the PKK. He also
informed the police that some PKK members were cultivating drugs and
gave the names of the places where hemp seeds (cannabis) were grown.
In further investigation the police captured 120,000 roots of hemp
seeds in a village named Dibek.
* On 21 August 1994 the Turkish security forces apprehended two people
with 150 kg. of hashish and considerable amounts of hemp seeds and
hashish growing material. The security forces also captured PKK
documents and propaganda material and two machine guns.
* Diyarbak?r Police, conducting an operation against the PKK on 17
July 1994, apprehended three people with 80 kg. of hashish, PKK
documents, a gun and three ERNK seals. These people confessed that the
PKK ordered them to sell the drugs and purchase firearms and food
supplies for the organization. The said people turned out to have
participated in various terror acts such as the rocket attack to and
storming of a police residence in Lice on 29 June, the bomb attack on
the residence of a judge in Diyarbak?r on 16 January 1994, and a bomb
attack on a police patrol car.
* Seven people captured in the city of Cizre on 23 March 1994 with
398.5 kilos of heroin confessed to smuggling narcotics on behalf of
the PKK.
* The security forces have had strong evidence suggesting that a
network composed of PKK militants is involved in drug trading in Zaho,
northern Iraq. The network is known to hand the drugs over to clients
either in Zaho or in Turkey. Therefore, it was not very surprising
that during the operation by the Turkish Armed Forces in northern Iraq
against the PKK, the Turkish army discovered a large farm where the
terrorists cultivated hemp (cannabis). The farm was located near the
PKK's Pirvela Camp in the Bahara valley. The Turkish military officers
announced that the amount of drugs captured during the operation in
northern Iraq reached 4.5 tons.
* In a raid on 7 March 1995 on the residence of a person, suspected by
the police of having contact with the PKK militants, the Turkish
police seized large amounts of drugs, drug precursor chemicals,
firearms and ammunitions.
* Three of the seven people caught with 21.5 kilos of heroin in
Hamburg, Germany, have been found out to have been formerly arrested
in Turkey on charges of PKK membership.
* The two people caught by the police with 20.6 kilos of narcotics in
?zmir on August 5, 1996, have been found out to be running an
association linked to the PKK in the Netherlands.
* Another PKK sympathizer, who was captured with acetic anhydride, a
heroin precursor chemical, by the Turkish security forces in the city
of Van on March 24, 1998, was found to have been previously arrested
for providing logistic support to the PKK.
* The Turkish security forces have strong evidence that the PKK
militants, settled in the Iranian part of our common border, receive
commissions from the narcotics smugglers called "taxes or donations."
***
The role of the PKK in incidents given above is undeniable, both
because of the documents seized by the security forces and the
backgrounds of the arrested people. Still, in certain Western
countries, the activities of this terrorist organization, are
regrettably being tolerated.
After the prohibition of PKK in France and Germany towards the end of
1993, a wave of optimism emerged in Turkish public opinion that the
rest of the European countries would follow suit by adopting similar
measures. This, however, has not happened to date. Yet, it is clear
that the prohibition of the PKK and its front organizations in
European countries would also be in the interest of these countries.
The PKK is responsible for narcotics trafficking, extortion, robbery,
and illicit arms and human smuggling activities, and thus circumvent
the rule of law and compromises the security and stability of the
countries in which it operates. It is no coincidence that drug
trafficking cases predominantly occur in those countries where the
organization of the PKK is extensive and tolerated.
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Is There A "Kurdish Question" in Turkey?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
As the first melting pot and encounter point of many different
civilizations and cultures, present-day Turkey contains a multitude of
ethnic, religious and cultural elements. Turkey is proud of its great
heritage. This centuries-long shared way of life is perfectly
second-nature for the people of Turkey.
Yet, different ethnic identities, including the Kurdish, are
acknowledged and accepted in Turkey. The state does not categorize its
citizens along ethnic lines nor does it impose an ethnic identity on
them. Population censuses in Turkey never count people on the basis of
their ethnic origins. But, this does not prevent an individual citizen
to identify himself or herself in terms of a specific ethnic category.
That is a private affair and ultimately a matter of personal
preference. Public expressions and manifestations of ethnic identity
are prohibited neither by law nor by social custom. Folklore is rich
and colorful and local variations, customs and traditions are
protected and supported.
Turkey is a constitutional state governed by the rule of law.
Democracy rests on a parliamentary system of government, respect for
human rights and on the supremacy of law. Multi-party politics, free
elections, a growing tradition of local government mark the democratic
way of life in Turkey.
Constitutional citizenship is one of the principles upon which the
Turkish state was founded. The Turkish Constitution stipulates that
the State and the Nation are indivisible, and that all citizens
irrespective of their ethnic, racial or religious origin, are equal
before the law.
For historical and cultural reasons, and under stipulations of binding
international treaties, the concept of "minority" applies specifically
to certain groups of non-Moslem citizens. In fact, the social fabric
of Turkey is a unique real life case of the OSCE principle that "not
all ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious differences necessarily
lead to the creation of national minorities". Our citizens of Kurdish
ethnic origin are not discriminated against and they feel themselves
to be equal members of the society. Many have risen to the highest
positions in the Republic. They share the same opportunities and the
same destiny as the rest of the population.
Ethnicity is not a factor in the political geography of Turkey. That
is, the predominant majority of the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
descent live in western Turkey, with the greatest concentration being
in Istanbul. Even in eastern and southeastern Turkey, the Turkish
citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin do not constitute a majority. The
unitary structure of the State reflects the equality and togetherness
of different geographic regions of Turkey.
Therefore, it is simply neither understandable nor acceptable for
Turkey to discuss "the respect for social, economic and legitimate
political aspirations of Kurds" as if the Turkish citizens of Kurdish
ethnic descent constitute a different and separate community. They are
citizens of a nation that has been sharing for centuries the same
values with respect to language, religion, culture and patriotic
identity, common history and the will for a mutual future.
It is of cardinal importance to differentiate between a militant
organization, which resorts systematically to terrorism as well as all
kinds of organized crime, and the phenomenon of Kurdish ethnicity. It
is evident that our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin are law-abiding
people. Most of them live in western Turkey, drawn by economic
attraction. They are of their own choice integrated into the society
and its economic, social and cultural aspects. In Turkey, citizens of
all ethnic origins can rise to the highest political positions and
ranks such as cabinet ministers and members of parliament. Throughout
the centuries, much mixing has taken place through intermarriages.
Progress in industrial, cultural and social fields, as well as
urbanization, has also contributed to the voluntary and natural
process of integration.
The population in southeast Anatolia, like our citizens in other
regions of the country, participate fully in the political life of
Turkey; they freely make their voices heard in local administrations,
in the municipalities, the Parliament, and the central government
through elected representatives. It is nothing out of the ordinary for
the individuals of different ethnic origins to participate in the
political life of the country. Even the most militant circles concede
the fact that there are no obstacles to social mobility of individuals
from different ethnic origins to any profession or career, whether
public or private.
The fundamental rights and freedoms of all Turkish citizens are
secured by the relevant provisions of the Constitution. However, those
rights have been threatened by the PKK, creating terror among the
populace.
None of our citizens of Kurdish ethnic origin, notwithstanding
allegations to the contrary, who publicly or politically asserts
his/her Kurdish ethnic identity risks harassment or persecution.
However, acts or statements made against the "territorial integrity"
of Turkey are subject to legal prosecution under the law. If these
allegations were true, none of the publications in Kurdish whose
contents are full of assertions of Kurdish ethnic identity would have
been tolerated by the authorities.
In the same vein, Turkey is often accused of refusing to negotiate
with the terrorist organization PKK. These accusations contradict the
fundamental rules of international law. Negotiating with a terrorist
organization, responsible for thousands of murders, would be
tantamount to justifying and encouraging terrorism.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk12.htm
Is the Use of Kurdish Banned in Turkey ?
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Contrary to the allegations of some biased quarters, there is no
restriction on the use of languages in Turkey. Presently, there are
many private radio-TV stations broadcasting and numerous books and
journals published both in Turkish and in various dialects of
"Kurdish" throughout the country. It should be mentioned here that
"Kurdish" can be hardly depicted as "a single language" linguistically
or socially. Many scholars point out the fact that there are many
different local languages and dialects used in southeastern Turkey
such as Zaza and Kirmanchi which are only as close to each other as
French and English. These local languages and dialects are so
dissimilar that people living in one village cannot even communicate
with others from a neighboring village. As a result, Turkish has
become the sole medium of communication in the region. It is ironic
that Turkish is also used in PKK's militant training camps and in the
communication between its headquarters and terrorists as their common
language.
The official language of the Republic of Turkey is Turkish, but
Armenian, Ladino, Greek, the different dialects of "Kurdish", etc. are
spoken freely in daily life. There is only one official language in
the country. However, in this respect Turkey does not constitute a
unique and exceptional case either in Europe or among other democratic
countries.
It should also be underlined that expressions of ethnic identity such
as the use of local languages are viewed as private domain matters.
Thus, they are not the subject of law and are therefore not regulated
by the state. The Turkish language is the language of the Republic of
Turkey and is consequently the only formal language of education and
instruction. The same is true in most democracies. Though it is
possible to help promote them, it is neither realistic nor feasible to
make local tongues official languages of the State.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.mfa.gov.tr/grupe/eh/eh01/pkk13.htm
Socio-Economic Development of Southeastern Turkey and the
Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The Atatürk Dam is the largest component of the Southeastern Anatolia
Project (GAP).
The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), consisting of a complex
system of dams, waterworks, irrigation and hydraulic energy network is
a colossal investment of Turkey, the biggest regional initiative ever
attempted in Turkey. It aims at changing the whole complexion of the
arid geography and consequently, the social and economic backwardness
of southeastern Anatolia. The Turkish Government has always believed
that one of the best tools in the struggle against terrorism is
economic development. It is no accident that the region in which the
PKK operates is also the least economically developed part of Turkey.
The Turkish Government is determined to rectify that.
It is a fact that there are socio-economic regional imbalances in
Turkey as in every developing, even some developed countries. Rough
geographic and climatic conditions of southeastern Turkey are the main
factors in this imbalance. Terrorism and economic backwardness of the
region affect all our citizens indiscriminately. Despite many
governmental incentives and low taxation policies, the private sector
had in the past been reluctant to invest in the region, mainly due to
security concerns. Public sector has taken the place of the private
sector and many investments have already been realized by the State.
"GAP" is the best example of that. Government investment in this
region is much higher than the amount of taxes collected there. "GAP"
is a gigantic economic step forward which will change the destiny of
the region. Agricultural production of Turkey will rise by several
folds when this project, which is both energy and irrigation oriented,
is completed. Yet, its important impact is not expected only on
agricultural production, but also on industry, construction, services,
as well as on the Gross Regional Product and employment. When the
project is completed, per capita income will increase three times, and
3.3 million jobs will be created.
The Southeastern Anatolia Project constitutes an integrated project
which contributes significantly to the realization of national targets
for the utilization of development potentials, self-induced economic
growth, social stability and enhancement of export possibilities, and
at the same time aims at the promotion of the principle of sustainable
human development; thus, human development is the core of sustainable
development in the "GAP" region. In this context, the "GAP Social
Action Plan" consists of the basic policies, targets, strategies and
implementation measures for ensuring the social development of the
region through a human-centered approach emphasizing sustainability of
the development. This people-centered development aims to remove the
gap between the project area and the more developed regions in Turkey
and to promote equitable development.
This ambitious socio-economic development drive also explains why the
PKK has been targeting civilians as well as economic and social
projects. PKK's aim is both to terrorize the local population and to
keep the region economically and socially backward so as to recruit
more militants into its own ranks. However, this is being reversed as
the GAP began to bear its fruits. For example, although the so-called
head of the PKK is from ?anl?urfa, there has never been a terrorist
act there, because it is an economically powerful settlement. The
state of emergency still has to continue in some of the provinces of
southeastern Turkey. It is the direct consequence and explicit proof
of the PKK terrorism in the region. It is of utmost importance for
Turkey to augment the allocation of human and financial resources for
the socio-economic development of this region. The precondition to
achieve this task is the eradication of the PKK terrorist
organization.
Eradication of terrorism will not only put an end to the deliberate
devastation by terrorists of the underdeveloped regions of Turkey, but
also release important resources for developmental activity in those
very regions. While terrorism might be viewed as a consequence of
certain underlying causes, it is also incontestably true that
terrorism is itself the main reason of poverty and underdevelopment of
those areas where it is perpetrated.
In sum, our citizens of all ethnic origins -Turkish, Kurdish and
others- living together for more than ten centuries in Turkey have
created a society of patriotic citizens sharing common values. They
established their own nation-state, the Turkish Republic, following
the War of Independence. Ethnic descent is not considered a cause of
discrimination or privilege just as in all modern nation States on the
globe.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Yiannis
2004-09-01 06:36:50 UTC
Permalink
Post by Ali Asker
So, if you repeat the same thing over and over again poeple would
blieve you! Is that the idea?
hahahahahahaha......
Stupid Turkish MORON!!!!!!!!!!
No,no,no. He is VERY clever for a Turk.It's only when you compare him
with the rest of mankind that he comes out as a moron. He is a turkish
intellectual!!
Look he can even writte!AND use a computer.
mark rivers
2004-09-01 15:39:44 UTC
Permalink
The thugs and murderers of Armnenian/Greek/PKK/KADEK Anti-Turkish
Hatred Inc. stick like sore thumb.

Son-of-a-bitches!!!!
Post by Yiannis
Post by Ali Asker
So, if you repeat the same thing over and over again poeple would
blieve you! Is that the idea?
hahahahahahaha......
Stupid Turkish MORON!!!!!!!!!!
No,no,no. He is VERY clever for a Turk.It's only when you compare him
with the rest of mankind that he comes out as a moron. He is a turkish
intellectual!!
Look he can even writte!AND use a computer.
Ali Asker
2004-09-02 09:07:34 UTC
Permalink
Turks are very civilised nice people!! Come on doggy doggyyy catch the bone!!!
Post by mark rivers
The thugs and murderers of Armnenian/Greek/PKK/KADEK Anti-Turkish
Hatred Inc. stick like sore thumb.
Son-of-a-bitches!!!!
Post by Yiannis
Post by Ali Asker
So, if you repeat the same thing over and over again poeple would
blieve you! Is that the idea?
hahahahahahaha......
Stupid Turkish MORON!!!!!!!!!!
No,no,no. He is VERY clever for a Turk.It's only when you compare him
with the rest of mankind that he comes out as a moron. He is a turkish
intellectual!!
Look he can even writte!AND use a computer.
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